Main Article Content
Although, different plant extracts have frequently been used singly and in combinations in folklore treatment of different ailments, the hidden truth behind their activity and efficacy is still to be fully scientifically established.
Aim: To evaluate the effects of combined 50% methanol extracts of Euphorbia abyssinica (Desert Candle), and Coleus sp. on Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccossum.
Study Design: The completely randomised block design, two-way analysis of variance was used to analyse the data and Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test, for mean separation.
Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria, between April 2011 and August 2012.
Methodology: All the fungal strains used in the research were collected from the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, Nigeria. Susceptibility testing was done using a pour-plate method, while the checkerboard and Time-kill assays were employed to evaluate the efficacy of the different combinations of the two plant extracts.
Results: The individual plant extracts inhibited all the fungal strains tested at different concentrations; but Coleus sp. extracts were observed to be more active than Euphorbia abyssinica extracts. The extract combinations inhibited the test fungi for more than two weeks. In the Time Kill assay, the combinations showed synergy on E. Floccossum only. It showed additive or antagonistic activity on the rest of the fungi tested. The Checkerboard combinations showed synergy on T. mentagrophytes, M. gypseum, and E. foccossum. Epidermophyton foccosum was the most susceptible among the fungi tested while C. albicans was the least susceptible. The control drug voriconazole also inhibited all the fungi tested. Significant antifungal activity (P=0.05) was observed in the checkerboard assay more than in the Time Kill assay.
Conclusion: These findings simply authenticate some of the folklore claims that these plants have a wide range of curative uses, suggesting that they can be used as alternative sources of agents for the treatment of resistant fungal infections.
Shanmugam K, Gnanaprakasam AR, Manivachagam C. Antifungal activity of different crude extracts of leaves of Madhuca indica. Int. J. Nat. Prod. Res. 2014;4(3):88-95.
Chiller T. The rise in antifungal resistance Medscape; 2016.
Revie NM, Iyer KR, Robbins N, Cowen LE. Antifungal drug resistance: Evolution, mechanisms and impact. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2018;12(45):70-76.
[Epub ahead of print]
Imperial College London. Resistance to antifungal drugs could lead to disease and global food shortages. Science Daily. Science Daily; 2018.
Robbins N, Tavia C, Cowen LE. Molecular Evolution of Antifungal Drug Resistance Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 2017;71:753-775.
Castanheira M, Deshpande LM, Davis AP, Rhomberg PR, Pfaller MA. Monitoring antifungal resistance in a global collection of invasive yeasts and molds: Application of CLSI epidemiological cutoff values and whole genome sequencing analysis for detection of azole resistance in Candida albicans. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2017;61:e00906-17.
Cowen LE, Sanglard D, Howard SJ, Rogers PD, Perlin DS. Mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Med; 2015.
[Originally published online November 10, 2014]
Sanglard D. Emerging threats in antifungal-resistant fungal pathogens. Front. Med. 2016; 3:11.
Azevedo MM, Faria-Ramos I, Cruz LC, Pina-Vaz C, Rodrigues AG. Genesis of azole antifungal resistance from agriculture to clinical settings J. Agric. Food Chem. 2015;63(34):7463-7468.
Saravanasingh K, George FP, Ramamurthy M. A study on Antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts of Medicinal plant Aegle marmelos Int. J. Adv. Res. Biol. Sci. 2016;3(2):321-328.
Tarh JE, Iroegbu CU. Microbiological evaluation of combinations of extracts of Euphorbia abyssinica and Coleus species for antibacterial activity. Indian E-J. Pharmaceut. Sc. 2017a;03(01).
Wiederhold NP. Antifungal resistance: Curr. Trends Fut. Strat. Combat. Infect. Drug Resist. 2017;10:249–259.
Mie A, Helle RA, Gunnarsson S, Kahl J, Guyot EK, Ewa R, Gianluca Q, Grandjean P. Human health implications of organic food and organic agriculture: A comp. Rev. Env. Health. 2017;16:111.1-22.
Fisher MC, Hawkins NJ, Sanglard D, Gurr SJ. Worldwide emergence of resistance to antifungal drugs challenges human health and food security. Sc. 2018;360(6390): 739-742.
Baljeet SY, *Simmy G, Ritika Y, Roshanlal Y. Antimicrobial activity of individual and combined extracts of selected spices against some pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms Int. Food Res. J. 2015;22(6):2594-2600
Salas ML, Mounier J, Valence F, Coton M, Thierry A, Coton E. Antifungal microbial agents for food bio preservation-A review. Microorganisms. 2017;5:37.
Tarh JE, Iroegbu, CU. In- vitro evaluation of anti-fungal effects of Euphorbia abyssinica (Desert Candle) Extracts, J. Adv Med. Pharmaceut. Sc. 2017b;13(1):1-10.
Padalia H, Anjali T, Chanda S. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plant extracts and its synergistic interaction with some antibiotics J. Pharm. Res. 2016; 10(5):211-220.
Tarh JE, Iroegbu CU. In-vitro anti-bacterial activity of extracts of Euphorbia abyssinica (Desert Candle) Stem-Bark and Latex. J. Adv Microbiol. 2017C;2(4):1-13.
Sukandar EY, Neng FK, Pratiwi W, Deani A. Antibacterial interaction of combination of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale var rubrum rhizome, Boesenbergia pandurata rhizome, and Stevia rebaudiana leaves with certain antibiotics against infectious mouth microbial. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2016;9(1):332-335.
Donkor AM, Oduro-Mensah D, Konona-Ang PM. In vitro antibacterial activity of PEG formulations of crude extracts of Cleome viscosa, Tamarindus indica and Euphorbia hirta. Res. J. Microbiol. 2016; 11(6):202-207.
Dry RJ, Mi Y, Saez-Rodriguez J. Looking beyond the cancer cell for effective drug combinations. Gen. Med. 2016;8:125.
Ranjan S, Bhavya K, Muntaj Sk, Basumata G, Rajesh M. Synergistic effect of some medicinal plants and antibiotics against few pathogenic bacteria. Intern. J. Biol. & Pharmaceut. Res. 2012;3(8):1000-1004.
Sanjeev R, Bhavya K, Muntaj SK, Basumata G, Rajesh M, Sanjeev R. Synergistic effect of some medicinal plants and antibiotics against few pathogenic bacteria Int. J. Biol. & Pharmaceut. Res. 2012;3(8):1000-1004.
Yashaswini S, Vasundhara M. Coleus (Plectranthus barbatus) – A multipurpose medicinal herb. The 12th Invest in ME Research Conference; 2017(Part 2).
Biqiku L, Lupidi G, Petrelli D, Vitali LA. Antimicrobial activity of single and combined extracts of medicinal plants from Cameroon. IOSR-JPBS. 2016;11(4)Ver. IV:86-90.
Tarh JE Okafor JI, Iroegbu CU. Evaluation of extracts of Coleus species for antibacterial activity. Afr. Biotech. 2015; 14(2):125-132.
Tarh JE, Iroegbu CU. Evaluation of anti-fungal activity of Coleus species extracts. Int. J. Curr. Res. Biosci. Plant Biol, 2017d; 4(1):131-138.
Tallarida RJ. Drug combinations: Tests and analysis with isoboles. Curr Protoc Pharmacol. 2016;72:(9):191–9.
Bliss CI. The toxicity of poisons applied jointly. Ann Appl Biol, 1939;26:585–615.
Saraswati JKK, Avinash KN. Analytical techniques for phytochemicals screening and bioactivities of some Coleus Species: A review. J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. 2016;8(4): 227-237.
Richens A. Drug interactions and lethal drug. J. Clin. Pathol. 1975;3-9:94-98.
Jay. Whole plant cannabis extracts: The important combination of THC and CBD; 2016.