Antibiotics Resistance and Plasmid Profile of Clinical Bacterial Isolates Obtained from Brait-Whyte Memorial Specialist Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Y. S. Wali
E. Effiong


Antibiotics resistance pattern of bacterial isolates has caused both economic and societal loses to mankind. In this study, ethical approval and samples were sought and obtained from the Brait-Whyte Memorial specialist hospital in Rivers State. Two hundred and seven (207) samples were obtained from both female (71%) and male (21%) sourced samples covering endocervical, throat, ear, wound, urethral, skin and high vaginal swabs. Biochemical and Molecular approaches were employed in the identification of multidrug-resistant isolates from the isolates obtained from the study. Kirby-Bauer method was employed in the determination of antibiotics susceptibility profile. Female patients with the age 25-35 years and 35-44 years were observed to be most frequent for High vaginal and wound swab bacterial isolate colonization cases. Twenty-six isolates were observed to be resistant to Augmentin, Ceftazidime, Gentamicin, Ofloxacin, Cefuroxime. Over 90% of the bacterial isolates were resistant to Cloxacillin, 76% for Ceftriaxone. Enterobacter ludwigii was identified to be both multidrug resistant and plasmid-mediated form of resistance with multiple plasmids with Molecular weight of 13065, 9139, 2350 and 854bps whereas Klebsiella aerogenes was observed to have three distinct plasmid-bands with 10173, 2525 and 2118 bp. This study further supports the role of plasmids in the resistance profile and drug idiosyncrasies of nosocomial and pathogenic bacterial flora, reported in Port Harcourt metropolis. There is a necessary to intensify public campaigns and awareness against unsafe drug administration practices and self-medication trends.

Plasmids, antibiotics susceptibility profile, antibiotics resistance pattern, Kirby-Bauer method, multidrug-resistant indices, drug idiosyncrasies.

Article Details

How to Cite
Wali, Y., & Effiong, E. (2019). Antibiotics Resistance and Plasmid Profile of Clinical Bacterial Isolates Obtained from Brait-Whyte Memorial Specialist Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Pathogen Research, 2(4), 1-12.
Original Research Article


Zhang Y. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in the microbial world. Baltimore, USA; 2007.

Davies J, Davies D. Origins and evolution of antibiotic resistance. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 2010;74(3):417–433.

Cheesbrough M. Microbiological tests. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. 2006;II:35-234.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance standard for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, document M100-S16. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2006

Blasco MD, Esteve C, Alcaide E. Multiresistant waterborne pathogens isolated from water reservoirs and cooling systems. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2008;105:469–475.

Odjadjare EE, Igbinosa EO, Mordi R, Igere B, Igeleke CL, Okoh AI. Prevalence of multiple antibiotics resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas species in the final effluents of three munic- ipal wastewater treatment facilities in South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012;9:2092–2107.

Umolu PI, Omigie O, Tatfeng Y, Omorogbe FI, Aisabokhale F, Ugbodagah OP. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Plasmid Profiles of Escherichia coli Isolates Obtained from Different Human Clinical Specimens in Lagos – Nigeria. Journal of American Sciences. 2006;2(4):70-76.

Yoshikawa TT. Antimicrobial resistance and aging: Beginning of the end of the antibiotic era? The American Geriatrics Society. SUPPLEMENT. 2002;50(7).

Karlowsky JA, Jones ME, Draghi DC, Thornsbery C, Sahm DF, Volturo GA. Prevalence of antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from blood cultures of hospitalized patients in the United States in 2002. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials. 2004;3:7.

Jombo GTA, Emanghe UE, Amefule EN, Damen JG. Urinary tract infections at a Nigerian University Hospital: Causes, patterns and antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials. 2011;3(6):153-159.

Hassan AO, Hassan RO, Muhibi MA, Adebimpe WO. A survey of Enterobacteriaceae in hospital and community acquired infections among adults in a tertiary health institution in Southwestern Nigeria. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2012;6(24):5162-5167.

Aibinu I, Adenipekun E, Odugbemi. The emergence of quinolone resistance amongst Escherichia coli strains isolated from clinical infections in some Lagos state hospitals, in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences. 2004;3(2):73–78.

Lutter SA, Currie ML, Mitz LB, Greenbaum LA. Antibiotic resistance patterns in children hospitalized for urinary tract infections. Archives of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 2005;159(10):924-928.

Cheng CH, Tsai MH, Huang YC, Su LH, Tsau YK, Lin CJ, Chiu CH, Lin TY. Antibiotic resistance patterns of community-acquired urinary tract infections in children with vesicourethral reflux receiving prophylactic antibiotic therapy. Paediatric. 2009;122(6):1212-1217.

Chakupurakal R, Ahmed M, Sobithadevi DN, Chinnappan S, Reynolds T. Urinary tract pathogens and resistant patterns. Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2010;63(7):652-654.

Akyar I. Antibiotic resistance rates of extended-spectrum betalactamase- producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. strains isolated from urinary tract infections in a private hospital. Mikrobiyology Bulletin. 2008;42(4):713-715.

Ostholm-Balkhed A, Tarnberg M, Nilsson M, Johnsson AV, Hanberger H, Monstein HJ, Nilsson LE. Prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and trends in antibiotic consumption in a county of Sweden. Scandinavian. Journal of Infection of Diseases. 2010;42(11-12):831-835.

Sader HS, Farrell DJ, Jones RN. Tigecycline activity tested against multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacterspecies isolated in US medical centres (2005-2009). Diagnostic Microbiology Infection and Diseases. 2011;69(2):223-227.

Morosini MI, Castillo MG, Coque TM, Valverde A, Novais A, Loza E, Baquero F, Canton R. Antibioticresistance in extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and in vitro activity of tigecycline. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2006;50(9):2695-2699.

Bouchillon SK, Hoban DJ, Johnson BM, Stevens TM, Dowzicky MJ, Wu DH, Bradford PA. In vitro evaluation of tigecycline and comparative agents in 3,049 clinical isolates: 2001-2002. Diagnostic and Microbiology of Infections and Diseases. 2005;51:201-205.