Main Article Content
Aims: This study was aimed at determining the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacteria isolated from sachet water sold in Uyo metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.
Study Design: Sachet water was randomly sampled in Uyo Metropolis.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Akwa Ibom State University, Nigeria, between June and November 2018.
Methodology: Six different brands of sachets water sold and consumed in Uyo metropolis were studied for their physical and microbiological qualities. Thirty (30) sachets water from the six (6) different brands respectively, were serially diluted and cultured on Nutrient agar, Eosin Methylene Blue agar, MacConkey agar and Salmonella-Shigella agar, while Muller Hinton agar was used for sensitivity test. Suspensions of purified isolates were standardized with 0.5 McFarland turbidity standard and were subjected to antibiotics susceptibility testing using Agar Diffusion method.
Results: The bacterial counts obtained ranged from 2.0 x 101 cfu/ml to 1.34 x 102 cfu/ml. Species isolated from the samples analysed included: Klebsiella sp., Escherichia sp., Staphylococcus sp., Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Citrobacter sp., Bacillus sp. Bacillus sp. Was susceptible to all the antibiotics tested against it except streptomycin while Staphylococcus sp was resistant to gentamicine and ampiclox but susceptible to other antibiotics. All the gram negative isolates were susceptible to tarivia and peflacine but completely resistant to nalidixic acid. Klebsiella sp. was most resistant (70%) of all the isolates, these was closely followed bt Escherichia sp. and Salmonella sp. at 60% resistance. Some of the sachet water brands from bacteriological standpoints did not meet the World Health Organization Standard for portable water.
Conclusion: This study indicted sub-standard packaged waters as a vehicle for the spread of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens, and this poses a high risk to public health. Hence, routine monitoring of producers of sachet water should been enforced.
World Health Organization. Drinking water quality guideline 4th Edition. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland. 2011;1-28.
Linda OA, Uchenna CO, Moses NI, Chinelo KU, Charles, OE. Microbial evaluation and antibiotic susceptibility profile of isolates of popular sachet water brands sold in Anambra State. British Microbiology Research Journal. 2016; 12(4);1-9.
Bitton G. Wastewater microbiology. 3rd Edition. Wiley series in ecological and Applied Microbiology; 2005.
Barrell R, Hunter PG. Microbiological standards for water and their relationship to health risk. Communicable Diseases and Public Health. 2000;3(1):8-13.
Finch RG, Greenwood D, Norrby SR, Whitley RJ. Antibiotic and chemotherapy: Anti-infective agents and their use in therapy. 8th Ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. 2003;964.
Nichol K, Zhanel GG, Hoban DJ. Molecular epidemiology of penicillin resistant and ciprofloxacin resistant Streptoccocus pneumoniae in Canada. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2003;47:804-808.
Kummerer K. Resistance in the environment. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2004;54:311–320.
Sharma BC, Rai B. Incidence of multi-drug resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from three lakes of tourist attraction (Mirik Lake, Jorepokhari Lake and Nakhapani Lake) of Darjeeling Hills, India. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences. 2012;2(2):108-114.
Swartz MN. Use of antimicrobial agents and drug resistance. The New England Journal. 1997;45-68.
Scott ME, Melton-Celsa AR, O’Brien AD. Mutations in hns reduce the adherence of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli 091:H21 strain B2F1 to human colonic epithelial cells and increase the production of hemolysin. Microbial Pathogenesis. 2003; 34:155–159.
Cruickshank R, Duguid JP, Marmion BP, Swain, RHA. Medical microbiology, volume II, 12th Edition. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, London and New York; 1975.
Olutiola PO, Famurewa O, Sonntag HG. An Introduction to general microbiology: A practical approach: Heidelberger Verlagsansalt und Druckerei GmbH. Heidelberg. 1991;267.
Harrigan WF, McCance EM. Laboratory Methods in Food and Dairy Microbiology. Academic Press, London, New York, San Francisco. 1976;452.
Buchanan RE, Gibbon NE. Bergey’s Manual of determinative bacteriology. 9th Edition, Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore; 1974.
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests. Approved standard M2-A4. Wayne, Pa: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards; 1990.
CLSI. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; 19th informational supplement M100–S19. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PANational Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests. Approved standard; 2009.
NCCLS document M2-A5. Wayne, Pa: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards; 1993.
Berger PS, Oshiro RK. Source water protection: Microbiology of source water. In: Encyclopedia of environmental microbiology. Bitton G, Editor-in-chief, Wiley Inter Science, New York. 2002;2967-2978.
Ollos PJ, Huck PM, Slawson, RM. Factors affecting bio film accumulation in model distribution systems. Journal of American Water Works Association. 2003;95:87–97.
LeChevallier MW, Seidler RJ, Evans TM. Enumeration and characterization of standard plate count bacteria in chlorinated and raw water supplies. Applied Environmental Microbiology. 1980;40: 922–930.
Onifade AK, Ilori RM. Microbiological analysis of sachet water vended in Ondo State, Nigeria. Environmental Research Journal. 2008;2:107-110.
Oladipo IC, Onyenika IC, Adebiyi AO. Microbial analysis of some vended sachet water in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science. 2009;3(12):406-412.
Oyedeji O, Olutiola PO, Moninuola MA. Microbiological quality of packaged drinking water brands marketed in Ibadan metropolis and Ile-Ife city in South Western Nigeria. African Journal of Microbiology. 2010;4:96-102.
Onilude AA, Adesina FC, Oluboyede OA. Adeyemi BI. Microbiological quality of sachet packaged water vended in three local governments of Oyo State, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Microbiology. 2013;4(9):195-200.
Nwachukwu E, Emeruem CM. Presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in sachet water produced and sold in the eastern Nigeria. Research Journal of Microbiology. 2007; 2(10):782-786
Piddock LJ. Clinically relevant chromosomally encoded multidrug resistance efflux pumps in bacteria. Clinical Microbiology Review. 2006;19: 382–402.
Tortora JG, Funke RB, Case LC. Microbiology An introduction. Media update of 7 edition including bibliography and index publisher. Daryl Fox. 2002;258-260.
William C, Sonzogoni P, Standridge J, Bussen M. Madison preservation and survival of Escherichia coli in well water sample. Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, University of Wisconsin. 2002;4-10.