Demonstration of Abnormal Cervical Change in Papanicolaou Smears by Liquid Base Cytology

Main Article Content

Howaida Mahmoud Hagag
Anwar Althomali
Rawan Alnefei
Bashair Alotaibi
Ola Abdullah
Ejtehad Almutairi
Reem A. Ramadan
Osama Mahmoud Khalifa
Khadiga Ahmed Ismail

Abstract

Background: Cervical cancer is considered one of the most important health problem affecting women health all over the world also it is preventable cancer as soon as it was discover early by cervical cytology using Papanicolaou (Pap) smears as it is an effective means of screening for cervical premalignant and malignant conditions such as Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). So this study aims to detect abnormal premalignant epithelial changes by liquid base Pap stained cervical smear in Taif city of Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: Cross sectional study is based on 100 females patients who attended the out-patient Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in King Faisal hospital were randomly chosen as cross sectional study. Cervical smears were obtained and Pap smears were prepared from patients presenting with different complaints such as vaginal discharge, abnormal menstrual and vaginal bleeding and pain. After fixation and staining, each smear was carefully examined.

Results: showed that epithelial cell abnormalities were found in 7% of smears, age rang of the patients was between 20-50 years old and the main complaint was abnormal vaginal discharge. Also our study established the high frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in females used contraception as well as early marriage as a risk factors.

Conclusion: In Taif City, a conservative community, premalignant and malignant cervical lesions are relatively high. Pap smear cervical cytology is an easy, safe and effective test for early detection of pre-malignant and malignant lesions of the cervix, thereby allowing clinicians to treat patients early and more effectively.

Keywords:
Cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, Papanicolaou smear.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mahmoud Hagag, H., Althomali, A., Alnefei, R., Alotaibi, B., Abdullah, O., Almutairi, E., Ramadan, R. A., Khalifa, O. M., & Ismail, K. A. (2020). Demonstration of Abnormal Cervical Change in Papanicolaou Smears by Liquid Base Cytology. International Journal of Pathogen Research, 3(3), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2019/v3i330095
Section
Original Research Article

References

Bal M, Goyal R, Suri AK, Mohi MK. Detection of abnormal cervical cytology in papanicolaou smears. Journal of Cytology. 2012;29(1):45-47.

Reis N, Beji NK, Kilic D. Risk factors for cervical cancer: Results from a hospital-based case-control study. International Journal of Hematology and Oncology. 2011;21(3):153-159.

Balaha MH, Al Moghannum MS, Al Ghowinem N, Al Omran S. Cytological pattern of cervical papanicolaou smear in eastern region of Saudi Arabia. J Cytol. 2012;28:173-7.

Al-Mandeel HM, Sagr E, Sait K, Latifah HM, Al-Obaid A, Al-Badawi IA, Alkushi AO, Salem H, Massoudi NS, Schunemann H, Mustafa RA, Brignardello-Petersen R. Clinical practice guidelines on the screening and treatment of precancerous lesions for cervical cancer prevention in Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi Medicine. 2016;36(5):313-320.

Tao L, Han L, Li X, Gao Q, Pan L, Wu L, Luo Y, Wang W, Zheng Z, Guo X. Prevalence and risk factors for cervical neoplasia: A cervical cancer screening program in Beijing. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1):1-9.

Al-Kadri HM, Kamal M, Bamuhair SS, Omair AA, Bamefleh HS. Prevalence and characteristics of abnormal papanicolaou smear in Central Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2015;36(1):117-122.

Deverakonda A, Gupta N. Diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer. J Nurs Health Sci. 2016;2(3):1-11.

Depuydt CE, Vereecken AJ, Salembier GM, Vanbrabant AS, Boels LA, et al. Thin-layer liquid-based cervical cytology and PCR for detecting and typing human papillomavirus DNA in Flemish women. Br J Cancer. 2003;88:560-56.

Vassilakos P, Saurel J, Rondez R. Direct-to-vial use of the autocyte PREP liquid-based preparation for cervical-vaginal specimens in three European laboratories. Acta Cytol. 1999;42:65-68.

Kerkar RA, Kulkarni YV. Screening for cervical cancer: An overview. J Obstet Gynecol India. 2006;56(2):115–122.

Afrakhteh M, Khodakarami N, Moradi A, Alavi E, Shirazi FH. A study of 13315 papanicolau smear diagnoses in Shohada Hospital. Journal of Family and Reproductive Health. 2007;2:75-79.

Jamal AA, Al-Maghrabi JA. Profile of pap smear cytology in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2003;24(11): 1225-1229.

Elhakeem HA, Al-Ghamdi AS, Al-Maghrabi JA. Cytopathological pattern of cervical Pap smear according to the Bethesda system in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2005;26(4):588–92.

Khattak ST, Khattak I, Naheed T, Akhtar S, Jamal T. Detection of abnormal cervical cytology by pap smears. Gomal J Med Sci. 2006;4:74–7.

Sherwani RK, Khan T, Akhtar K, Zeba A, Siddiqui FA, Rahman K. Conventional pap smear and liquid based cytology for cervical cancer screening - A comparative study. J Cytol. 2007;24(4):167–72.

Pradhan N, Giri K, Rana A. Cervical cytology study in unhealthy and healthy looking cervix. N J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007; 4:42–7.