International Journal of Pathogen Research 2019-09-20T10:01:13+00:00 International Journal of Pathogen Research Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Pathogen Research</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers related to all aspects of pathogens and pathogen-host interactions.&nbsp;The journal covers all pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions, parasites, and protozoa that infect humans or animals, the&nbsp;diagnosis, management, or treatment for pathogen-related diseases, the diseases that have important medical, agricultural, and economic consequences as well as environmental and public health implications. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> In vitro Study on Anti-salmonella Activities of Boerhaavia diffusa (L. syn) Leaf Extract 2019-07-22T10:17:46+00:00 Ologun, Oluwabusayo Dada, Ebenezer Oluyemi Ajayi, Kehinde Oluyemi <p>Various strategies have been employed in the treatment and management of Salmonella infection however, Salmonella strains have gained resistance to antibiotics. This study was to determine in vitro anti-Salmonella activity of Boerhaavia diffusa leaf extract against clinical isolate of <em>Salmonella typhi</em> and <em>Salmonella typhi</em> ATCC 14028. The aqueous and ethanol extracts of B. diffusa were studied for their antibacterial activity against pathogenic <em>Salmonella typhi</em>. This study was carried out between April and September 2018. The in vitro antibacterial activity was performed by agar well diffusion method and broth dilution using spectrophotometric method and the results were expressed as the average diameter of zone of inhibition of bacterial growth around the well and optical density respectively. It was observed that aqueous extract exerted slightly higher activity than ethanolic extract as revealed by the mean diameter of zone of inhibitions at a concentration of 200 mg/ml, the aqueous extract had 35.21±0.47 mm (<em>Salmonella typhi</em> ATCC 14028) compared with ethanol extract 26.41±0.32 mm (clinical). However, in the broth dilution method, ethanol extract significantly (p=0.05) reduced the cell, at 48 hours, the optical density of clinical isolate of S. typhi treated at concentration of 200 mg/ml of extract was 0.47±0.02 nm while at the same concentration of extract, aqueous extract had an optical density of 0.52±0.11 nm respectively. The phytochemical assay revealed that tannin (5.18±0.02 mg/g) and quinone (8.45±0.13 mg/g) in ethanol extract was significantly (p=0.05) higher than aqueous extract while saponin (14.18±0.06 mg/g) was higher in the aqueous extract. The ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of B. diffusa whole plant exhibited significant antibacterial activity against both clinical and typed <em>Salmonella typhi</em>. Therefore, the plant extract could be used for the treatment of Salmonellosis, however, the in vivo studies is needed to ascertain the safety of the extract.</p> 2019-07-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antibiotic Profile of Staphylococcus aureus on Table Eggs from Ezrad Farms in Iwo Area of Osun State 2019-08-23T09:33:04+00:00 Famubo, Joseph A. Oladunjoye, Bunmi B. Ogunfowora, Vitoria O. <p>Surface swabs of the table eggs were carried out using sterile swab sticks. These were inoculated on Mannitol Salt Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. The isolates obtained were morphologically and biochemically characterized. 62% of the isolates obtained were identified as <em>Staphylococcus aureus. </em>0.5 McFarland standard of each <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>isolate was subjected to antibiotic susceptibility test on Muller Hinton Agar using the disc diffusion method. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by observing and measuring clear zones in millimetres. The antibiogram pattern of <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>on the surface of table eggs from Ezrad farms located in Iwo, Osun State was investigated. <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> isolates were 100% resistant to Augmentin and Cloxacillin while resistance to Ceftazidime, Erythromycin, Gentamycin, Ofloxacin, Cefuroxime and Ceftriaxone were at 96%, 89%, 86%, 82%, 75% and 57% respectively. This study shows high resistance of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> isolated from eggshells to antibiotics which could pose a serious health problem.</p> 2019-08-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Molecular Diversity and Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase Resistance of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli from Patients Attending Selected Health Care Facilities in Nasarawa State, Nigeria 2019-09-02T11:53:14+00:00 R. H. Abimiku Y. B. Ngwai I. H. Nkene B. E. Bassey P. A. Tsaku T. Ibrahim S. C. Tama D. Ishaleku G. R. I. Pennap <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study investigated the molecular diversity and extended spectrum beta-lactamase resistance of diarrheagenic <em>E. coli</em> isolated from patients attending selected healthcare facilities in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Department of Microbiology, Nasarawa State University, P.M.B 1022, Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria; between December 2017 and June, 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 207 confirmed<em> E. coli</em> isolates (using standard microbiological methods) from loose stool samples of patients with suspected cases of diarrhea (69 from Federal Medical Centre Keffi [MCK] 69 from General Hospital Akwanga [GHA] and 69 from Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital Lafia [DASHL]) were included in this study.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Phenotypic detection of ESBL production by β-lactam resistant isolates was done using double disc synergy test. Molecular detection of ESBL genes in phenotypically confirmed ESBL producers was done using Polymerase Chain Reaction. Out of 56 isolates jointly resistant to cefotaxime and/or ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin from DASHL, FMCK and GHA, 53.6% (30/56) were ESBL producers, distributed in relation to the hospitals as follows: <em>bla<sub>CTX-M</sub></em> in DASHL was 6(66.7%), FMCK was 11(100.0%), and GHA was 10(100.0%); <em>bla<sub>SHV</sub></em> in DASHL was 8(88.9%), FMCK was 7(63.6%), and GHA was 10(100.0%), and <em>bla<sub>TEM</sub></em> in DASHL was 9(100.0%), FMCK was 10(90.9%), and GHA was 10(100.0%). Also, the occurrence of <em>bla<sub>SHV</sub></em> was 100.0% in GHA but 88.9% in DASHL. The detection DEC was high in DASHL (88.9%) but low inGHA (58.8%). The occurrence of ETEC was high in GHA (60.0%) while EAEC was also high in FMCK (81.8%) and GHA (70.0%). The isolates were distributed into strain A – J based on RFLP pattern and the occurrence of strain A was high in GHA (70.0%) but low in DASHL (33.3%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Most of the isolates were both diarrheagenic and ESBL resistant, and the predominant ESBL and pathotypes genes were <em>bla<sub>CTX</sub></em><sub>-M</sub>, <em>bla<sub>TEM</sub></em> and EAEC. Further studies on molecular detection of sub-types of ESBL and sequencing of diarrheagenic pathotypes genes should be carried out.</p> 2019-09-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Bacteria Isolated from Sachet-packaged Water Sold in Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria 2019-09-07T09:50:54+00:00 Uduak S. Umoessien Ukponobong E. Antia Mary Christopher Etanguno E. Owowo <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study was aimed at determining the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacteria isolated from sachet water sold in Uyo metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Sachet water was randomly sampled in Uyo Metropolis.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Microbiology, Akwa Ibom State University, Nigeria, between June and November 2018.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Six different brands of sachets water sold and consumed in Uyo metropolis were studied for their physical and microbiological qualities. Thirty (30) sachets water from the six (6) different brands respectively, were serially diluted and cultured on Nutrient agar, Eosin Methylene Blue agar, MacConkey agar and Salmonella-Shigella agar, while Muller Hinton agar was used for sensitivity test. Suspensions of purified isolates were standardized with 0.5 McFarland turbidity standard and were subjected to antibiotics susceptibility testing using Agar Diffusion method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The bacterial counts obtained ranged from 2.0 x 10<sup>1 </sup>cfu/ml to 1.34 x 10<sup>2</sup> cfu/ml. Species isolated from the samples analysed included: <em>Klebsiella </em>sp.<em>, Escherichia </em>sp.<em>, Staphylococcus </em>sp.<em>, Salmonella </em>sp.<em>, Pseudomonas </em>sp<em>., Citrobacter </em>sp<em>., Bacillus </em>sp<em>. Bacillus</em> sp. Was susceptible to all the antibiotics tested against it except streptomycin while <em>Staphylococcus</em> sp was resistant to gentamicine and ampiclox but susceptible to other antibiotics. All the gram negative isolates were susceptible to tarivia and peflacine but completely resistant to nalidixic acid. Klebsiella sp. was most resistant (70%) of all the isolates, these was closely followed bt <em>Escherichia</em> sp. and <em>Salmonella</em> sp. at 60% resistance. Some of the sachet water brands from bacteriological standpoints did not meet the World Health Organization Standard for portable water.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study indicted sub-standard packaged waters as a vehicle for the spread of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens, and this poses a high risk to public health. Hence, routine monitoring of producers of sachet water should been enforced.</p> 2019-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Risk Factors and Microbiological Control of Soils, Surfaces and Medical-technical Equipment at the Abomey-Calavi / So-Ava University Hospital Center, Benin 2019-09-20T10:01:13+00:00 Akim Socohou Haziz Sina Cyriaque C. Degbey Helène Ahouandjinou Houssenatou Gounou-Kora Farid Baba-Moussa Adolphe Adjanohoun Lamine Baba-Moussa <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of our work was, on the one hand, to evaluate the risk factors for infectious contamination in hospital environments and, on the other hand, to carry out a microbiological control of surfaces at the Abomey-Calavi / So-Ava hospital in Benin.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The risk factors were evaluated using structured interviews based on the questionnaire. Fifty-five health care workers were surveyed and the questionnaire focused on: i) knowledge of care-associated infections and risk factors, ii) services most affected by care-associated infections and iii) origin of care-associated infections. For the microbial quality control of medical surfaces and materials, samples were collected by the dry swab method and the microbial isolation was carried out on Chapman and EMB agar plates. The biochemical analyses were carried out for the confirmations.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 55 respondents, the 93% think that bacterial germs are often involved in care-associated infections. In addition, 80% of respondents believe that the healthcare environment may be the source of care-associated infections. Regarding the microbiological quality of the surfaces, out of 96 samples collected, 77% were contaminated with <em>Staphylococcus</em> spp and 30% with Enterobacteria. Concerning units’ contamination, the highest prevalence was observed in paediatrics with 92% of samples contaminated with <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp followed by the operating theatre (87%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is clear from our work that hygiene managers must carry out preventive and corrective actions for the respect of the principles of hygiene. It would also be important to conduct regular microbiological monitoring of surfaces to identify any contamination.</p> 2019-09-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##