International Journal of Pathogen Research <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Pathogen Research</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers related to all aspects of pathogens and pathogen-host interactions.&nbsp;The journal covers all pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions, parasites, and protozoa that infect humans or animals, the&nbsp;diagnosis, management, or treatment for pathogen-related diseases, the diseases that have important medical, agricultural, and economic consequences as well as environmental and public health implications. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> International Journal of Pathogen Research en-US International Journal of Pathogen Research Antibacterial Activity of Fermenting Unripe Pawpaw Parts (Carica papaya) against Some Enteric Bacteria <p>This research work was carried out to investigate the antibacterial activity of fermenting <em>Carica papaya </em>parts on some enteric organisms and their proximate and phytochemical screening. The unripe <em>Carica papaya</em> parts used were obtained from the Federal University of Technology Akure and the test organisms used are clinical isolates gotten from State Specialist Hospital, Akure. The unripe <em>Carica papaya </em>was separated into the leaves, peel, pulp and seed. It was then soaked in distilled water in separate fermenting jars for seven days. The following readings were taken daily; pH, titratable acidity while the Antibacterial effect of the fermenting slurry was monitored on day 1, 3, 5 and 7, using the agar well diffusion method. The result obtained showed that the pH decreases while the titratable acidity increases daily respectively. The zones of inhibition observed in the isolates were highest on day 3 and day 5, showing that the water from the fermenting unripe <em>Carica papaya </em>is more effective against the enteric isolates used for this research on day 3 and day 5. Therefore, water from fermenting unripe <em>Carica papaya </em>parts may be effective in treating infections from enteric organisms on day 3 and day 5. The peel and pulp were observed to be more effective while the seed had no antibacterial activity. Phytochemical analysis showed that the plant parts contained these active ingredients at various concentrations; alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides and phenols.</p> B. T. Fasoyinu O. V. Oyetayo A. T. Ajayi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-25 2019-09-25 1 10 Mycoflora and Nutritional Analysis of Smoked Dried Crayfish (Penaeus monodon – Prawns) During Storage <p>This study was carried out to investigate the mycoflora and nutritional composition of smoked dried crayfish <em>Penaeus monodon </em>(prawns) during storage for twenty-four weeks. The mycoflora were isolated at four weeks interval using direct plating and dilution methods on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Saboraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) and Malt Extract Agar (MEA). The fungi isolated using direct plating methods and dilution methods were <em>Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigates, Rhizopus </em>sp<em>., Phytophthora siskiyouensis, Penicillum </em>sp<em>.</em> and <em>Mucor </em>sp<em>. </em>The result of proximate analysis (g/100 g) of smoked dried crayfish <em>Penaeus monodon</em> (prawns) showed a decrease in ash content (12.53-10.86), fat (14.95-12.30), crude fibre (1.60-1.29) while moisture content (3.10-3.71), crude protein (66.34-66.84) and carbohydrate (1.66-5.00) increased respectively. The result of mineral analysis (mg/100 g) of smoked dried crayfish <em>Penaeus monodon</em> (prawns) showed a decrease in Sodium (110.90-104.9), Potassium (107.30-94.96), Calcium (120.61-98.66), Magnesium (137.50-120.22), Zinc (2.15-1.87), Iron (12.33-10.17), Copper (0.16-0.22), Manganese (0.40-0.25), cadmium (0.42-0.13) and Phosphorous (485.00-460.76) respectively. This study showed that the smoked dried crayfish products were invaded by fungi which could be due to display of the products in open trays without coverage for sale, most of the times which were not hygienic. This, in turn, allows the dust and fungal spores to settle on the products leading to fungal contamination, production of toxins and spoilage. Stored smoked dried crayfish (prawns) sellers should be enlightened on good hygienic practices.</p> Emmanuel Dayo Fagbohun Oluwabukola Atinuke Popoola Ayobami Opeoluwa Durojaiye ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-16 2019-10-16 1 8 Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Screening of Gnetum Africanum Stem and Root <p>The menace of antibiotic resistance and the antecedent evolution of innocuous microbes into superbugs is an epidemic of global concern. This study investigated the phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of hexane and methanol extracts of <em>Gnetum africanum </em>stem and root, on <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi and Aspergillus flavus. </em>Stem and roots of <em>G. africanum</em> were extracted with hexane and methanol using cold maceration technique; standardized chemical tests were employed for phytochemical screening and the agar-well diffusion method used for antimicrobial analysis. The results of phytochemical screening <em>G. africanum </em>showed that all the following tested phytochemicals which include steroid, tannins, and saponins were present in both methanol and hexane extracts of <em>G. africanum</em> while flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides and carbohydrate were absent in both the methanol and hexane extracts. Anthraquinone was present in hexane extract but absent in methanolic extract of <em>G. africanum</em>. Both the stem and root of <em>G. africanum </em>had antimicrobial effects on all the test organisms but the effect of the stem was higher than that of the root. Findings indicate that both extracts had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the growth of <em>S. aureus</em>, with maximum inhibition zones of 17.50 mm and 16.00 mm at 500 mg/ml for hexane and methanol extracts, respectively. The stem and root extracts of hexane and methanol were inactive against <em>A. flavus. </em>The findings of this study further reinforce the importance of <em>G. africanum</em> stem and root in traditional healthcare practice and its use in culinary. Further investigation is however needed to isolate and purify the bioactive antimicrobial principles for potential development into generic antimicrobials.</p> B. C. Akin-Osanaiye E. J. Ekpeyong I. W. Olobayotan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-19 2019-10-19 1 11 Effects of Host Blood on Fecundity and Longevity of Female Anopheles Mosquitoes <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The effect of Host blood on the fecundity of female <em>Anopheles gambiae sensu lato</em> mosquitoes was studied under normal conditions of 64±2% Relative Humidity and 27±2ºC Temperature.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Three-five day old (F1) female <em>Anopheles </em>mosquitoes were transferred into wooden cages (40x40x40 cm) and fed blood from the following sources: man, cattle, chicken, goat, pig and sheep through an artificial feeding membrane. Engorged females were observed and fecundity recorded. The entire experiment was replicated five (5) times.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> From the 1<sup>st</sup> to 4<sup>th</sup> gonotropic cycle, mosquitoes fed human blood produced significantly greater (p&lt;0.05) number of eggs (Mean=121.90±1.18, 101.36±1.56, 64.12±1.54 and 29.66±1.69 respectively) than mosquitoes fed other blood meal sources. Across the six (6) blood meal trials (excluding that of sheep), there was a significant reduction (p&lt;0.05) in fecundity from the 1<sup>st</sup> to 4<sup>th</sup> gonotropic cycles (1<sup>st</sup>&gt;2<sup>nd</sup>&gt;3<sup>rd</sup>&gt;4<sup>th</sup>). There was no significant difference (p&gt;0.05) in fecundity between pigs, chicken and sheep. Total mean longevity and total mean fecundity was significantly greater (p&lt;0.05) in mosquitoes fed human and cattle blood than in mosquitoes fed the other blood sources.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results showed that blood meal source affects fecundity and longevity of female <em>Anopheles gambiae s. l </em>mosquitoes reared under laboratory conditions and that blood from humans as well as from other domestic animals is suitable for sustaining vectorial capacity in <em>Anopheles gambiae s. l</em> mosquitoes.</p> J. I. Chikwendu A. Onekutu I. O. Ogbonna ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-12 2019-11-12 1 7 Prevalence of Fascioliasis and Dicrocoeliasis in Cattle Slaughtered in Some Abattoirs in Akure Metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria <p>The study was carried out in March-May 2019 to investigate the prevalence of fascioliasis and dicrocoeliasis in cattle slaughtered in parts of Akure abattoir, Ondo State, Nigeria. Two hundred (200) bile samples from cattle were collected from both male and female cattle. The parasitological analysis of the bile sample was carried out by sedimentation technique. Prevalence of <em>Fasciola gigantica</em> was (50.5%) for <em>Dicrocoelium hospes</em> was 16.0% and double infections accounted for (5.5%).&nbsp; Prevalence of <em>Fasciola gigantica </em>infections was high in female cattle (57.7%) compared to their male counterparts (38.9%). For <em>Dicrocoelium hospes</em>, the infection was higher in male (18.2%) than in the female (14.6%) while the prevalence of double infections was higher in males (7.8%) than in the females (4.07). The high infection rate for <em>Fasciola gigantica </em>(84.0%) and <em>Dicrocoelium hospes </em>(62.0%) was found to be high at Busa abattoir. Double infection was observed to be high at Oke-Odu abattoir (10%) than in other abattoirs while no infection was observed at Bola meat abattoir. Overall age prevalence of fascioliasis and dicrocoeliasis (82.8%) was within the age bracket of 9-10yrs while the least infection (54.2%) fall within the age bracket of 7-8yrs. Prevalence of fascioliasis and dicrocoeliasis in Sannia breed was 90.2% followed by the Ambala breed (84.0%) while the least was 31.2% in the White Fulani breed. This study which revealed a high prevalence of fascioliasis and dicrocoeliasis among cattle slaughtered in the studied abattoir possesses a threat to healthy livestock productions and it is significant public health importance. Adequate measures to improving the veterinary services are needed to put in place to reduce the economic losses accruing to these infections.</p> E. O. Dada S. O. Jegede ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 1 7