International Journal of Pathogen Research <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Pathogen Research (ISSN:&nbsp;2582-3876)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers related to all aspects of pathogens and pathogen-host interactions.&nbsp;The journal covers all pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions, parasites, and protozoa that infect humans or animals, the&nbsp;diagnosis, management, or treatment for pathogen-related diseases, the diseases that have important medical, agricultural, and economic consequences as well as environmental and public health implications. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (International Journal of Pathogen Research) (International Journal of Pathogen Research) Fri, 08 May 2020 07:28:21 +0000 OJS 60 Biological and Physico-chemical Properties of Causal Agent of Virus Disease of Coccinia barteri (Hook. f.) Keay in Calabar, Cross River State <p>The physico-chemical properties of the causal agent of virus disease of <em>Coccinia barteri </em>(Hook. f.) Keay were studied. The virus causing the disease was characterized using diagnostic tools such as host range, longevity <em>in vitro</em>, thermal inactivation point, dilution endpoint and aphid transmission. The virus was mechanically transmitted from the natural host (<em>C. barteri</em>) to the healthy test plants in the green house. In the biological properties, the virus was successfully transmitted by <em>Aphis spiraecola</em> (obtained from <em>Chromolaena odorata</em> (L.) R. M. King &amp; H. Rob.) from infected <em>Cucumeropsis mannii</em> Naudin to a healthy <em>C. mannii</em> in a non-persistent manner and had a narrow host range limited to the family Cucurbitaceae. In the physico-chemical properties based on crude sap with an unknown virus concentration, beyond which infectivity was lost. It was readily inactivated by heating to 35 – 65°C for 10 minutes in determination of thermal inactivation point. The virus had a longevity <em>in vitro </em>of between 4 – 5 days beyond which it was non-infectious. Symptoms induced by the virus were leaf cupping, mottle chlorosis, blisters, stunted growth, rugosity, leaf malformation and mosaic patterns.</p> V. E. Uyoh, O. T. Umoh, A. T. Toby, O. M. Umoden ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 08 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Malaria Prevalence Investigation among Pregnant Women in Relation to Their Social Well Being: A Case Study of Lugbe and Gosa, Abuja, Nigeria <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This research aim was to investigate the impact of living conditions (Socio demographic characteristics) of pregnant women on their malarial status.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>In order to achieve the objectives of the study, Cross sectional survey was used. This is because only a subsect of the population was used. Descriptive designs was utilised in the Questionnaire aspect of the study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The Presidential Malarial initiative PMI/USAID - funded Insectary Laboratory at Nasarawa State University, Keffi/six (6) Months.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Blood samples were collected from the participating pregnant women by pricking their thumb and the blood droplet was examined using a direct thin and thick blood smear preparation stained with giemsa for the presence of the ring form stages of the parasites in the blood of the individuals in the laboratory. Qualitative data were sourced through Questionnaire administration to 589 pregnant women in Antenatal care clinics (ANC) in the area and their malaria status was also determined.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Study results showed a high prevalence rate of malaria in pregnancy (70.5%), the greater number of occurrences being in Lugbe (42.3%) than in Gosa (28.2%). Those living in houses built with wood recorded more positive cases of malaria and are at greater risk of infection (odds = 1.866%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study has shown an increased rate of malaria infection amongst pregnant women living in wood and mud houses. The result also shows high rate of malaria occurrences due to low living conditions amongst pregnant women domiciled in this area of study. Hence, pregnant women should as a routine be placed on malaria prophylaxis and periodically checked as they can be asymptomatic, only exhibiting symptoms when its already late.</p> Onyemaechi Ngozi Edith, Malann Yoila David ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 18 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Urinary Tract Pathogenic Infections in Diabetic Patients Attending a Health Facility in Kumasi, Ghana <p><strong>Aims:</strong> This study seeks to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of urinary tract pathogenic infections in diabetic patients attending a health facility in Kumasi, Ghana.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> A total of 285 patients were recruited using Cochran’s formula at a prevalence of 26.4% for this study from patients attending the University Hospital from April 2018 to October 2018. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Clean-catch midstream urine samples were screened for the presence of pathogenic bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern using recommended culture methods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of the 285 patients, 125 (43.9%) were diabetic with 90 (72%) being female and 35 (28%) male. There was no association between UTI’s and gender (P=0.5799) with diabetic patients recording higher bacteriuria compared to non-diabetics (P&lt; 0.001). Isolates from 113 (39.4%) of the samples were identified and these included, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Pseudomonas species</em>, <em>Klebsiella species,</em> <em>Proteus species</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. The most predominant was <em>E. coli</em> 62 (54.9%) followed by <em>S. aureus</em> 24 (21.2%), <em>Klebsiella species</em> 14(12.4%), <em>Pseudomonas species </em>12(10.6%) and <em>Proteus species</em> 1(0.9%).<em> E. coli</em> showed a high antimicrobial sensitivity rates against most of the tested antibiotics, gentamycin (90.3%), amikacin (98.4%), nalidixic (34%), cefotaxime (80.6%) and nitrofurantoin (93%). Proteus spp. on the other hand, showed a 100% sensitivity to all the antibiotics except tetracycline, amikacin and cefotaxime. It was observed that <em>Escherichia coli</em> was mostly resistant to tetracycline (96.8%), norfloxacin (69.4%) and cefotaxime (61.4%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong><em> S. aureus </em>showed a higher level of resistance to tetracycline (100%). The prevalence of this study indicated that UTI among diabetic patients was relatively comparable with other studies. Amikacin and nitrofurantoin should be recommended as antimicrobials for the treatment of UTIs whilst the use of tetracycline, norfloxacin and cefotaxime should be discouraged.</p> Maxwell Adu-Poku, Matthew Glover Addo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 02 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Current Knowledge on the Pathogenesis of and Therapeutic Options against SARS-CoV-2: An Extensive Review of the Available Evidence <p><strong>Background: </strong>By May 16, 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 virus had spread to 188 countries, infecting over 4.6 million people and causing 310,520 fatalities. A major factor responsible for the voracious spread of the virus is the lack of specific therapeutics for treatment. Current efforts have focused on repurposing existing agents with proven antiviral properties for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of the virus; the current standard of care and state of knowledge on the antiviral effect of some of the therapeutic options, including Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir combination and Convalescent Plasma; and examine the efforts so far towards the development of a vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2.</p> <p><strong>Main Body: </strong>The current standard of care which includes supportive treatment and oxygen therapy are crucial in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Convalescent plasma has a strong immunotherapeutic potential for the treatment of both MERS- CoV and SARS-CoV infections, which many clinical studies have shown to be applicable for treating SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir (GS-5734), an experimental Ebola virus drug effectively inhibited SARS-CoV-2 in-vitro and in-vivo, and has recently been given emergency use authorization by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) following early signs of success in human clinical trials. The therapeutic potential of the Lopinavir/Ritonavir combination has been extensively explored, and though promising; it had no significant effect on viral clearance and has been associated with severe adverse reactions. Chloroquine &amp; Hydroxychloroquine have been shown to effectively inhibit the infection in-vitro and in animal models, and had a significant viral clearance. Most vaccine development efforts remain in Phase I stage of development.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The current state of knowledge about the therapeutic options against SARS-CoV-2 shows great promise, however, more structured clinical studies are needed to provided much needed evidence to support the establishment of proper guidelines of therapy to curb the pandemic.</p> Oluwafolajimi A. Adesanya, Boluwatife A. Adewale, Ikponmwosa G. Ebengho, Kenechukwu F. Okwunze, Judith O. Ebengho, Olayinka A. Fakorede, Ifeoluwa D. Olugbamigbe, Hilda A. Igwe ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000