Knowledge and Determinants of Hepatitis B Virus Testing and Vaccination Status among Sickle cell Disease Patients

Alphonsus Ogbonna Ogbuabor *

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Greg Ndubuisi Arji

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Chukwudi Uche Ngwu

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital, Enugu State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Background: Sickle cell anemia patients are a cohort of at-risk individuals for Hepatitis B virus infection due to their life-long dependency on transfusion therapy. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations stipulates testing and vaccination for at-risk individuals.

Objective: The objectives of the present study are to assess the level of knowledge of sickle cell disease patients to HBV infection, identify their HBV vaccination status and to assess the barrier that prevents patients from being tested and vaccinated for HBV infection.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The subjects comprised of 120 sickle cell disease patients who were recruited through consecutive sampling using pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires and data was analyzed with statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) for Microsoft Window Version 23.

Results: The mean age of the respondents was 24 +6 years. About 57.5% of the respondents are aware of Hepatitis B virus infection but only 15% had good knowledge of the disease.  About 80.8% of the respondents have not been tested for Hepatitis B infection while 70% has not been vaccinated. The cost of testing for HBV infection and vaccination was identified as a major factor that prevented many of the patients from identifying their HBV status as well as getting vaccinated as about 80% of the respondents have not been tested due to high cost of testing while 84.2% have not been vaccinated due to high cost of the vaccine.

Conclusion: There should be universal health education to sickle cell anemia patients on the need for Hepatitis B virus infection test and vaccination as well as a health insurance scheme that will cover the cost of Hepatitis B virus testing and vaccination for patients.

Keywords: Knowledge, determinants, Hepatitis B virus infection, Hepatitis B test, Hepatitis B vaccine, sickle cell anemia, Enugu

How to Cite

Ogbuabor, A. O., Arji, G. N., & Ngwu, C. U. (2022). Knowledge and Determinants of Hepatitis B Virus Testing and Vaccination Status among Sickle cell Disease Patients. International Journal of Pathogen Research, 11(1-2), 31–36.


Download data is not yet available.


Mathew PC, Kramvis A. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Sub-Saharan Africa: No room for complacency. Hepatoma Research. 2020;8:14.

Adewayin AS, Daramola OA, Ogbenna AA, Adeyemo TA. Antibodies in adult patients with sickle cell disease and blood donors in Lagos, Nigeria: A comparative study. Immunohematology 2021;3793):131-137.

Odaibo GN, Babalola OD, Akpa OM, Fasola FA, Odetunde A, Brown B, Alamukii NA, Babalolo CP, Falusi AG. Prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections among sickle cell disease patients in Southwestern Nigeria: A case-control study. World Journal of AIDS. 2021; 11:101-119.

Olaoye T, Agbede CO, Oshiname FO. Perception and practices relating to hepatitis B infection among In-School adolescents in Ogun state, Nigeria. Babcock University Medical Journal. 2021;4(1):14-22.

Riaz M, Abbas M, Rasool G, Baig IS, Mahmood Z, Munir N, Tahir IM, Shah SMA, Akram M. Prevalence fo transfusion-transmitted infections in multiple blood transfusion-dpendent thalassemic patients in Asia: A systematic review. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology. 2022;36:1-9.

Eze NC, Egba EC, Ogbanna JE, Nwamini SN, Nweke PU, Amasianya JS. Knowledge, attitude and uptake of hepatitis B vaccine among clinical medical students of a tertiary institution in Southeast Nigeria. Asian Journal of Immunology. 2021; 4(2):31-36.

Ogbuabor AO, Igwe MC. Heavy metal contamination of pleurotus tuberregium sclerotia (Osu) consumed in Enugu, South East, Nigeria. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences. 2022;10(8): 1241-1243.

Omote V, Ukwamedua HA, Bini N, Etaghene J, Omoviye EO, Iloka OM. Awareness, risk factors and prevalence of viral hepatitis B and C among antenantal attendees in South-southern Nigeria : A cross-sectional and hospital-based study. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2020;8(6):202-208.

Nwabuko OC, Onwuchekwa U, Iheji O. An overview of sickle cell disease from the socio-demographic triangle- a Nigerian single-institution retrospective study. Pan African Medical Journal. 41(161):1-4.

Okonkwo U, Otu A, Ameh S, Okpara H. Public awareness of hepatitis B virus infection in Cross River state, Nigeria: A population-based survey. West African Journal of Medicine. 2018;35(2): 1-7.

Olorukooba AA, Earnest EC, Yahaya SS, Lawal A, Nwankwo B, Alexanda-Onoja M, Hamza KL, Lawal B. Awareness and knowledge of hepatitis B virus infection among students in a tertiary institution in Northwestern Nigeria. Abstract/International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2018;735:393-398.

Paul N, Peterside O. Hepatitis B Vaccination rate among medical students at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). World Journal of Vaccines. 2015;(2):1-7.

Eni AO, Soluade MG, Oshamika OO, Efekemo OP, Igwe TT, Onile-ere OA. Knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B virus infection in Nigeria. Annals of Global Health. 2019;85(1)56:1-6.

Adekanle O, Ndububa DA, Olowookere SA, Ijarotimi O, Ijadunola KT. Knowledge of hepatitis B virus infection, immunization with hepatitis B vaccine, risk perception and challenges to control hepatitis among hospital workers in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Hepatitis Research and Treatment. 2015;1-6.

Afolabi IB, Aremu AB, Maidoka LA, Atuloma NO. Predictors of hepatitis B virus infection vaccine hesistancy among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Lubaga Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. International Journal of Women’s Health. 2022;14:1093-1104.