An Overview of COVID-19 Vaccines: Challenges of the Discovery and Development by the Pharmaceutical Industries

Estella Achick Tembe-Fokunang

Department of Pharmacotoxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon.

Andrew Nyuyki Banin

Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Joseph Fokam

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Cameroon and Virology Laboratory, Chantal Biya International Reference Center (CIRCB), Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Dobgima John Fonmboh

Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Bioresource Technology in the College of Technology, University of Bamenda, Cameroon.

Kristen Nubia Kaba

Department of Clinical Research, Revance Therapeutic Incorporated, Newark California, USA.

Lovet Benyella Fokunang

Lead Scientist GE Life Sciences CYTIVA, Logan, Utah, USA.

Ben Enoluomen Ehigiator

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Madonna University, Elele, Nigeria.

Zelinjo N. Igweze

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Madonna University, Elele, Nigeria.

Sarah Tishkoff

Department of Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Ralf Duerr

Department of Pharmacotoxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon.

Charles Ntungwen Fokunang *

Department of Pharmacotoxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The coronavirus (COVID-19) took the world by storm and triggered intensive research mobilization and action towards vaccines and drug repurposing. This pandemic triggered an emergence therapy intervention of which the development of new vaccine and drug repurposing were good options that was to be validated by regulatory authorities for potential use for enhancing acquired immunity for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). Prior to the outbreak that led to the global health emergency intervention, an understanding of the viral architecture, pathophysiology and mechanism of action and functions were well established.  The global health disaster caused by COVID-19 has generated significant interest globally for research in vaccine discovery and development by many research institutions and Pharmaceutical sectors since 2019. So far, the approval of many clinical trials tested vaccines by the regulatory authorities have led to the need for post approval concerns of efficacy, safety and quality of these approved vaccines. This review paper attempts to explore the vaccines approved for global access to the population discovery and development process, the potential safety implications. An insight into other therapy options such as the convalescence plasma treatment and management for the global COVID-19 pandemic has been reviewed.

Keywords: Coronavirus, COVID-19, vaccine, SARS-COV-2, immunity, China

How to Cite

Tembe-Fokunang, E. A., Banin, A. N., Fokam, J., Fonmboh, D. J., Kaba, K. N., Fokunang, L. B., Ehigiator, B. E., Igweze, Z. N., Tishkoff, S., Duerr, R., & Fokunang, C. N. (2022). An Overview of COVID-19 Vaccines: Challenges of the Discovery and Development by the Pharmaceutical Industries. International Journal of Pathogen Research, 11(3-4), 13–31.


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