Antibiogram Pattern of Multidrug Resistance of Gram-negative Extended Betalactamase Isolates from Urine of Diabetic Patients
International Journal of Pathogen Research, Volume 12, Issue 1,
Background: The rate of multidrug resistant bacteria is the most worrisome in the health setting because it often associates with nosocomial infection.
Objectives: This present study aim at, evaluating the antibiotic pattern of multidrug resistance of Gram-negative extended betalactamase isolates from urine of diabetic patients.
Methods: This is a cross sectional study carried out at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital with a total of 110 diabetic patients and were recruited using convenient sample method. The patients were instructed on how to collect the mid-stream urine samples without contamination. The samples were cultured and characterized the isolates following standard bacteriological methods. The isolated bacteria were subjected to sensitivity test pattern using agar disc diffusion techniques. The multidrug resistant isolates were physically checked for the extended spectrum betalactamase production. Obtained data was subjected to these statistical tools; descriptive statistics, chi-square and pair-test using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS version 26).
Results: Out of 110 urine samples assessed for significant growth of bacteria, it was found that, 55(27%) were the Gram negative bacteria (GNB).The highest prevalence of isolates were E. coli 30(54.6%), followed by Klebsiella pneumonia 14 (25.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6 (10.9%), and Proteus species 5 (9.09%) respectively. The most occurrence of the MDR bacteria were found in Augmentin 46 (83.6%) as well as as Cefuroxime 43 (78.2%) respectively. The significant mean range of Augumentin and Cefixime resistant to ESBL producers were (0.53±1.2; p = 0.000) and (0.600 ± 0.974; p = 000) respectively.
Conclusion: The study detected the high proportion of multi-drug resistant isolates and the most occurrence were found in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Regular monitoring, conducting, supervising, or management of antibiotics and molecular biomarkers for drug resistance are paramount to curtail the rate of drug-resistant pathogens.
- Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase
- multidrug resistance
- Escherichia coli
- Klebsiella pneumonia
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa
How to Cite
Shaikh S, Fatima J, Shakil S, Rizvi SMD, Kamal MA. Prevalence of multidrug resistant and extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a tertiary care hospital. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2015;22(1):62–64.
Negvekar V, Sawant S, Amey S. Prevalence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria cases at admission in multispecialty hospital. Journal Global Antimicrobial Resistance 2020;9(22):457–61.
Ayukekbong JA, Ntemgwa M, Atabe AN. The threat of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries: Causes and control strategies. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2017;6(1):47.
Piddock LJ. Reflecting on the final report of the O’Neill review on antimicrobial resistance. Lancet Infectious Disease. 2016;(7):767–768.
Izadpanah M, Khalili H. Antibiotic regimens for treatment of infetions due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens: An evidence-based literature review. J Res Pharm Practice. 2015;4(3):105–14.
Cassini A, Högberg LD, Plachouras D, Quattrocchi A, Hoxha A, Simonsen GS, Colomb-Cotinat M, Kretzschmar ME, Devleesschauwer B, Cecchini M. Attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years caused by infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the EU and the European Economic Area in 2015: A population-level modelling analysis. Lancet Infectious Diseaase. 2019;19:56–66.
Morris S, Cerceo E. Trends, epidemiology, and management of multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacterial infections in the hospitalized setting. Antibiotics. 2020;9:196.
Sumpradit N, Wongkongkathep S, Malathum K, Janejai N, Paveenkittiporn W, Yingyong T, Chuxnum T, Vijitleela A, Boonyarit P, Akaleephan C. Thailand’s national strategic plan on antimicrobial resistance: Progress and challenges. Bull. World Health Organ. 2021;99:661-673.
National Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Thailand. Global and National Antimicrobial Resistance Situation; 2019. Available:http://narst.dmsc.moph.go.th/ Access on 31 May 2021
Baramee J, Unahalekhaka A, Klunklin P. Implementation and barriers in prevention of multidrug-resistant organisms transmission among community hospitals. Nursing Journal Chiang Mai University. 2021;48:95–106.
Alali WQ, AlFouzan W, Dhar R. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative clinical isolates from a major secondary hospital in Kuwait: A retrospective descriptive study. Germs. 2021;11:498–511.
Andrés Lasheras S, Martín Burriel I, Aspiroz C, Mainar Jaime RC, Robres P, Sevilla E, Kuijper E, Chirino Trejo M, Bolea R. Incidence and characterization of Clostridium difficile in a secondary care hospital in Spain. Rev. Esp. Enferm. Dig. 2019;111:338–344.
Chesbrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2006.
Magiorakos AP, Srinivasan A, Carey R, Carmeli Y, Falagas M, Giske C, et al. Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pan drug-resistant bacteria: An international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance. Clinical Microbiology Infection. 2012:268-281.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; twenty-second informational supplement. 27th ed. CLSI Supplement M100 Wayne, PA: CLSI; 2017.
Jaffar A, Rabaan A, Justin VS, Ali MB. Antimicrobial resistance of gram-negative bacteria: A six-year longitudinal study in a hospital in Saudi Arabia. J Infect Public Health. 2020;13(5):737–745.
Uc-Cachón AH, Gracida-Osorno C, Luna-Chi IG, Jiménez-Guillermo JG, Molina-Salinas GM. High prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative isolated bacilli in intensive care units at a tertiary-care hospital in Yucatán Mexico. Medicina (Kaunas). 2019;55(9): 588.
Lamichhane B. Antibiotic resistance patterns of gram-negative isolates in a tertiary care hospital of Nepal. Asian Journal Pharm Clinical Resources. 2014; 7(3):30-33.
Abstract View: 23 times
PDF Download: 10 times