Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Biofilm-producing Escherichia coli Strains from Water Sources Around Major Slum in Port Harcourt City, Nigeria

Kpormon L. B. *

Department of Microbiology, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, PMB 5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Ogbonna, D. N. *

Department of Microbiology, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, PMB 5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Wemedo, S. A.

Department of Microbiology, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, PMB 5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Williams, J. O.

Department of Microbiology, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, PMB 5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Douglas I. S.

Department of Microbiology, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, PMB 5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Slum is characterized by uncontrollable development around urban areas, with huge settlements from migrants from the rural areas for greener pastures. This situation is associated with increasing environmental problems predisposing the inhabitants to public health problems. This study was therefore aimed to assess the prevalence and resistance patterns of biofilm-producing E. coli strains in water sources around major slums in Port Harcourt city. A total of three hundred and sixty water samples including surface water (120), Borehole water (120) and well water (120) samples were collected from five different slums namely: Bundu, Egede, Enugu, Ibadan and Etche watersides over a period of twelve months. The water samples were processed and screened for the presence of E.  coli using standard microbiological techniques.  The isolates were subjected to biofilm production assays and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Results revealed that out of the 360 water samples, 291 (80.8%) were positive for Escherichia coli across the three water sources; 120 (100%) for surface water, 98(81%) for well water and 73(60%) for borehole water. Further analysis revealed that out of the 291 Escherichia coli isolates from the three water sources, 180(62%) were positive for biofilm production, 90(31%) showed moderate biofilm production while 21(7%) were non- biofilm producing strains. The antibiotic susceptibility testing showed that the biofilm-producing E. coli exhibited high levels of resistance to commonly used antibiotics, including Augmentine, Ceftazidime, Cefuroxime, and Cloxacillin. The percentage resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from water sources in Bundu, Egede, Enugu, Etche and Ibadan watersides, were 100% resistant to Ceftazidime (CAZ) and Cefuroxime (CRX) respectively. For Cloxacillin (CXM), Escherichia coli showed resistance for Enugu and Ibadan (82.5%), Etche and Egede (79.2%) and Bundu (66%). Whereas Escherichia coli isolated from Bundu, Enugu, and Ibadan watersides were 100% while those isolated from Egede, and Etche were 75% resistant to Augmentin. On the other hand, Escherichia coli from Etche and Egede watersides were both 8.3 and 15% resistant to Gentamycin. However, Escherichia coli was 100% susceptible to Nitrofurantoin, Ofloxacin and Ceftriaxone across the five slums. E. coli strains are usually described as indicator organisms which indicate faecal pollution.  The high prevalence of biofilm-producing E. coli and their resistance to multiple antibiotics suggest that the inhabitants are highly predisposed to the risk of water related and water-borne diseases and therefore need urgent intervention strategies to prevent the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in these areas.

Keywords: Biofilm-producing, Escherichia coli, water sources, slums, antibiotic resistance pattern, public health risks, Port Harcourt city


How to Cite

Kpormon L. B., Ogbonna, D. N., Wemedo, S. A., Williams, J. O., and Douglas I. S. 2023. “Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Biofilm-Producing Escherichia Coli Strains from Water Sources Around Major Slum in Port Harcourt City, Nigeria”. International Journal of Pathogen Research 12 (6):37-45. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2023/v12i6251.

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