Cross Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Tuberculosis among the District of Sudhnuti, Azad Jammu and Kashmir

Muhammad Shoaib *

Department of Zoology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Muhammad Najeeb

Department of Physics, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.

Zahid Hussain Shah

Department of Public Health, Alhamd Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Muhammad Hameed Khan

Department of Zoology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Muhammad Haroon

Department of Computer Science, Hazara University, KPK, Pakistan.

Nida Siraj

Department of Zoology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Globally, tuberculosis (TB) is a major health risk that is mostly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a member of the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex (MTC). Ten million cases of tuberculosis and 1.3 million deaths from the disease occur each year, making Mycobacterium tuberculosis one of the leading causes of death globally. Pakistan is ranked fifth among high-burden countries for tuberculosis (TB) and is expected to rank fourth for the prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB. As a result, tuberculosis poses a serious threat to public health in Pakistan. Tuberculosis is a common occurrence in Azad Jammu and Kashmir.

Aims: The current study aimed to find out the prevalence of tuberculosis in the defined population. 

Study Design:  The study was conducted in the District and Tehsil Headquarters Hospitals of District Sudhnuti AJK.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from all the District and Tehsil headquarters hospitals of Sudhnuti district from January 2019 to December 2019.

Methodology: Samples of sputum from suspected cases were gathered from district Sudhnuti hospitals and TB centers from January 2019 to December 2019. All the suspected cases were examined by sputum smear microscopy and then bacteriologically positive cases were further confirmed by GeneXpert. All positive cases were examined for multi-drug resistance by using GeneXpert.

Results: In the current study during the year 2019, 201 TB cases were reported from district Sudhnuti out of which 107 (53.23%) were males and 94 (46.76%) were females. The value of P=0.51 which is >0.05 is insignificant shows that Tuberculosis has no selective effect on a specific gender.  Pulmonary cases were 131 in number with 81 bacteriologically positive and 50 clinically diagnosed negative cases. Extra Pulmonary cases were 70 in number with 1 bacteriologically positive and 69 clinically diagnosed negative cases. Only 2 (0.99%) MDR cases were diagnosed and the case notification rate during 2019 was 66.

Conclusion: The current study shows that males are slightly more prone to TB in district Sudhnuti AJK as compared to females. Individuals with age >64 are more susceptible to TB when compared to individuals with age <15. The CNR during 2019 is 66 which is far away from the WHO set criteria. The CNR indicates that there is a need for improvement in the surveillance system.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, multi drug resistance tuberculosis, case notification rate, male to female ratio, contact tracing


How to Cite

Shoaib , M., Najeeb , M., Shah , Z. H., Khan , M. H., Haroon , M., & Siraj , N. (2024). Cross Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Tuberculosis among the District of Sudhnuti, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. International Journal of Pathogen Research, 13(2), 37–45. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2024/v13i2278

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Wazeer A, Riaz A, Qasim Z, Waheed U, Shaukat A, Azam S et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Division Mirpur, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Liaquat Medical Research Journal. 2021;3(1).

Parsons SD, Miller MA, van Helden PD. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in Africa. Tuberculosis in animals: An African Perspective. 2019:73-86.

Waksman SA. The conquest of tuberculosis: University of California Press; 2021.

Natarajan A, Beena P, Devnikar AV, Mali S. A systemic review on tuberculosis. Indian Journal of Tuberculosis. 2020;67(3):295-311.

Peloquin CA, Davies GR. The treatment of tuberculosis. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2021;110(6):1455-66.

Miller T, McNabb S, Hilsenrath P, Pasipanodya J, Weis S, Ahmad S et al., editors. Global epidemiology of tuberculosis. Seminars in respiratory and critical care medicine. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA; 2018

Chakaya J, Khan M, Ntoumi F, Aklillu E, Fatima R, Mwaba P et al. Global Tuberculosis Report 2020–Reflections on the Global TB burden, treatment and prevention efforts. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2021;113:S7-S12.

Atif M, Ahmed W, Nouman Iqbal M, Ahmad N, Ahmad W, Malik I et al. Frequency and factors associated with adverse events among multi-drug resistant tuberculosis patients in Pakistan: A retrospective study. Frontiers in Medicine. 2022;8:790718.

Ullah W, Wali A, Haq MU, Yaqoob A, Fatima R, Khan GM. Public–private Mix models of tuberculosis care in Pakistan: A high-burden country perspective. Frontiers in Public Health. 2021;9:703631.

Jain A, Dixit P. Multidrug resistant to extensively drug resistant tuberculosis: what is next? Journal of Biosciences. 2008;33:605-16.

Khan MA, Bilal W, Asim H, Rahmat ZS, Essar MY, Ahmad S. MDR-TB in Pakistan: Challenges, efforts, and recommendations. Annals of Medicine and Surgery. 2022;79:104009.

Munir MK, Rehman S, Iqbal R. Meeting the challenge, making a difference: Multidrug resistance tuberculosis in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Medical Research. 2018;57(1):1-2.

Ilyas MT, Saghir A, Malik KF, Khanum A, Dad NAF. Forecasting incidence prevalence of tuberculosis in Azad Jammu and Kashmir: A five-year retrospective study; 2023.

Sulis G, Roggi A, Matteelli A, Raviglione MC. Tuberculosis: Epidemiology and control. Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases. 2014;6(1).

Nanoo A, Izu A, Ismail NA, Ihekweazu C, Abubakar I, Mametja D et al. Nationwide and regional incidence of microbiologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis in South Africa, 2004–12: A time series analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2015;15(9):1066-76.

Tiwari N, Adhikari C, Tewari A, Kandpal V. Investigation of geo-spatial hotspots for the occurrence of tuberculosis in Almora district, India, using GIS and spatial scan statistic. International Journal of Health Geographics. 2006;5:1-11.

van Gurp M, Rood E, Fatima R, Joshi P, Verma SC, Khan AH et al. Finding gaps in TB notifications: spatial analysis of geographical patterns of TB notifications, associations with TB program efforts and social determinants of TB risk in Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2020;20:1-14.

Chen M, Kwaku AB, Chen Y, Huang X, Tan H, Wen SW. Gender and regional disparities of tuberculosis in Hunan, China. International Journal for Equity in Health. 2014;13:1-6.

Tariq G, Faiz A, Faiz LZ. Prevalence of Tuberculosis in District Haveli, Azad Jammu And Kashmir. Journal of Bioresource Management. 2020;7(3):9.

Dogar OF, Shah SK, Chughtai AA, Qadeer E. Gender disparity in tuberculosis cases in eastern and western provinces of Pakistan. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2012;12(1):1-7.

Saleem M, Ahmad W, Jamshed F, Sarwar J, Gul N. Prevalence of tuberculosis in Kotli, Azad Kashmir. Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad. 2013;25(1-2):175-8.

Baber JZ, Ali I, Qasim Z, Saba N, Akram S, Nouman M et al. Epidemiology of Molecular Probes in Xpert MTB/RIF Assay in AJK, Pakistan. Annals of PIMS-Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University. 2023;19(2):74-80.

Javaid A, Hasan R, Zafar A, Ghafoor A, Pathan A, Rab A, et al. Prevalence of primary multidrug resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs in Pakistan. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2008;12(3):326-31.

Ullah I, Javaid A, Tahir Z, Ullah O, Shah AA, Hasan F et al. Pattern of drug resistance and risk factors associated with development of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Pakistan. Plos One. 2016;11(1):e0147529.

Organization WH. World Health Organization Global Tuberculosis Report 2020. World Health Organization. 2020;232.

Pandey P, Pant ND, Rijal KR, Shrestha B, Kattel S, Banjara MR, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay in comparison to conventional drug susceptibility testing method for the diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Plos One. 2017;12(1):e0169798.

Banu S, Mahmud AM, Rahman MT, Hossain A, Uddin MKM, Ahmed T et al. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in admitted patients at a tertiary referral hospital of Bangladesh. Plos One. 2012;7(7):e40545.

Kumar P, Balooni V, Singh S. Genetic mutations associated with rifampicin and isoniazid resistance in MDR-TB patients in North-West India. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2015;19(4):434-9.

Sharma S, Madan M, Agrawal C, Asthana AK. Genotype MTBDR plus assay for molecular detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology. 2014;57(3):423-6.

Desikan P, Panwalkar N, Mirza SB, Chaturvedi A, Ansari K, Varathe R et al. Line probe assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex: An experience from Central India. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2017;145(1):70-3.