Cross Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Tuberculosis among the District of Sudhnuti, Azad Jammu and Kashmir

Muhammad Shoaib *

Department of Zoology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Muhammad Najeeb

Department of Physics, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.

Zahid Hussain Shah

Department of Public Health, Alhamd Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Muhammad Hameed Khan

Department of Zoology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Muhammad Haroon

Department of Computer Science, Hazara University, KPK, Pakistan.

Nida Siraj

Department of Zoology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Globally, tuberculosis (TB) is a major health risk that is mostly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a member of the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex (MTC). Ten million cases of tuberculosis and 1.3 million deaths from the disease occur each year, making Mycobacterium tuberculosis one of the leading causes of death globally. Pakistan is ranked fifth among high-burden countries for tuberculosis (TB) and is expected to rank fourth for the prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB. As a result, tuberculosis poses a serious threat to public health in Pakistan. Tuberculosis is a common occurrence in Azad Jammu and Kashmir.

Aims: The current study aimed to find out the prevalence of tuberculosis in the defined population. 

Study Design:  The study was conducted in the District and Tehsil Headquarters Hospitals of District Sudhnuti AJK.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from all the District and Tehsil headquarters hospitals of Sudhnuti district from January 2019 to December 2019.

Methodology: Samples of sputum from suspected cases were gathered from district Sudhnuti hospitals and TB centers from January 2019 to December 2019. All the suspected cases were examined by sputum smear microscopy and then bacteriologically positive cases were further confirmed by GeneXpert. All positive cases were examined for multi-drug resistance by using GeneXpert.

Results: In the current study during the year 2019, 201 TB cases were reported from district Sudhnuti out of which 107 (53.23%) were males and 94 (46.76%) were females. The value of P=0.51 which is >0.05 is insignificant shows that Tuberculosis has no selective effect on a specific gender.  Pulmonary cases were 131 in number with 81 bacteriologically positive and 50 clinically diagnosed negative cases. Extra Pulmonary cases were 70 in number with 1 bacteriologically positive and 69 clinically diagnosed negative cases. Only 2 (0.99%) MDR cases were diagnosed and the case notification rate during 2019 was 66.

Conclusion: The current study shows that males are slightly more prone to TB in district Sudhnuti AJK as compared to females. Individuals with age >64 are more susceptible to TB when compared to individuals with age <15. The CNR during 2019 is 66 which is far away from the WHO set criteria. The CNR indicates that there is a need for improvement in the surveillance system.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, multi drug resistance tuberculosis, case notification rate, male to female ratio, contact tracing

How to Cite

Shoaib , Muhammad, Muhammad Najeeb, Zahid Hussain Shah, Muhammad Hameed Khan, Muhammad Haroon, and Nida Siraj. 2024. “Cross Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Tuberculosis Among the District of Sudhnuti, Azad Jammu and Kashmir”. International Journal of Pathogen Research 13 (2):37-45.


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