Bacteriological Profile and Multidrug Resistance Patterns of Isolates from Sputum of Adults with Community Acquired Pneumonia in Diobu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria: A Retrospective Study

Chidi L.C. Ndukwu *

Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Federal University, Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Roseanne Adah Ikpeama

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, PAMO University of Medical Sciences, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Community acquired pneumonia is a major global public health concern given its substantial contribution to the mortality and morbidity associated with infectious diseases, the huge losses in human and economic resources and the increasing challenges in treatment due to multidrug resistance (MDR). This retrospective cross sectional descriptive study reviewed laboratory records of adults clinically diagnosed with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2022. A total of 308 sputum specimens meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed and yielded 135 (43.8%) bacterial strains. The 135 bacterial strains spread across 9 species had Streptococcus pneumoniae as the dominant species with 41(30.4%); followed by Staphylococcus aureus 21(15.6%), Escherichia coli 16(11.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 16(11.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 12(8.9%), Streptococcus pyogenes 12(8.9%), Proteus mirabilis 10(7.4%), Enterobacter cloacae 5(3.7%) and Acinetobacter baumannii 2(1.5%). The cumulative resistance profile was 45.7%; the most resistant bacterial specie was Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a resistance profile of 50%; followed by Staphylococcus aureus (48.6%), Enterobacter cloacae (48.0%), Streptococcus pyogenes 47.5%, Streptococcus pneumoniae 47.3%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 45.6%, Proteus mirabilis 42.0%, Escherichia coli 40.0% and Acinetobacter baumannii 35.0%. The MDR prevalence was 85.9% including 36.3% extensively resistant strains; but no pan-drug resistant trains; while 14.1% were non-multidrug resistant. This study has contributed to the data on bacteriological profile and antimicrobial resistance patterns in aetiological agents of community acquired pneumonia in Port Harcourt. The high prevalence of drug resistance implies that many people are likely to be infected, while most of the antibiotics are losing potency against the bacterial pathogens. It is advised that regulatory laws on drug control be revised as it pertains antibiotics, the regulatory agencies should be compelled to perform their statutory duties while there is need to sensitize the populace on the dangers of antibiotic abuse and misuse.

Keywords: Community acquired pneumonia, public health, multidrug resistance, antimicrobial resistance, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae

How to Cite

Ndukwu, Chidi L.C., and Roseanne Adah Ikpeama. 2024. “Bacteriological Profile and Multidrug Resistance Patterns of Isolates from Sputum of Adults With Community Acquired Pneumonia in Diobu, Port Harcourt, Nigeria: A Retrospective Study”. International Journal of Pathogen Research 13 (3):65-75.


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