Distribution and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from Well Water in the Rural Communities of Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State

Boniface Oke

Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, P.M.B. 53, Nigeria.

Ikemesit Udeme Peter *

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Technology and Engineering, Federal University of Allied Health Sciences, Trans-Ekulu, P.M.B. 01473, Enugu, Nigeria.

Chukwuemeka Odi Love Chinenye

Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, David Umahi Federal University of Health Science, Uburu, P.M.B. 8211, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

Awoke Obinna Okpaga

Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, P.M.B. 53, Nigeria.

Nwiboko Michael Chukwuemeka

Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, P.M.B. 53, Nigeria.

Beatrice Ngozi John-onwe

Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, P.M.B. 53, Nigeria.

Nwankwo Fidelis Mbam

Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, P.M.B. 53, Nigeria.

Ifeanyichukwu Romanus Iroha

Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, P.M.B. 53, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Enterobacteriaceae as an indicator of water sanitary quality and their frequency of occurrence as antibiotic-resistant microbial pathogens in water remain a threat to humans and the environment. This research work aimed to determine the distribution and antibiotic resistance profile of Enterobacteriaceae isolates from different well water sources in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A total of 100 well water samples were collected and subjected to bacteriological analysis using Standard Microbiological protocol for isolation and identification. Antimicrobial resistance studies of Enterobacteriaceae were determined using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method and, the results were analyzed and compared with the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) zone diameter breakpoints. The result of isolation revealed a high colony enumeration of bacterial isolates from well water, revealing high bacterial counts of 1.0x104-8.1 x104 cfu/ml from Nsukara. The distribution of bacteria in well water revealed a high proportion of E. coli 42 (42.0%) followed by Salmonella species 12 (12.0%) and Shigella species 7(7.0%). The isolates exhibited a high percentage of resistance to ceftriaxone 100%, Sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim 100% tetracycline 66.7%, 66.7% but were susceptible to Ciprofloxacin 100 %, and Imipenem 100%. Our findings indicate the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in well water. Within these communities, awareness should be given to the populace on the implication of antibiotic residues in the environment as well as the importance of maintaining a clean and hygienic environment around the wells to ensure the safety of water and also to prevent the spread of resistant determinant in the environment and human. The Government should make provision for a portable water source that will be accessible and well-sustained in the communities.

Keywords: Well water, E. coli, Salmonella species, Shigella species, antibiotic resistance, Enterobacteriaceae


How to Cite

Oke, Boniface, Ikemesit Udeme Peter, Chukwuemeka Odi Love Chinenye, Awoke Obinna Okpaga, Nwiboko Michael Chukwuemeka, Beatrice Ngozi John-onwe, Nwankwo Fidelis Mbam, and Ifeanyichukwu Romanus Iroha. 2024. “Distribution and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from Well Water in the Rural Communities of Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State”. International Journal of Pathogen Research 13 (4):22-34. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2024/v13i4294.

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