Retracted: Platelet-rich Concentrates (L-PRF, PRP) in Tissue Regeneration: Control of Apoptosis and Interactions with Regenerative Cells

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Alessandro Crisci
Ugo de Crescenzo


The platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a platelet concentrate of the latest generation, consisting of P-PRF (pure platelet-rich fibrin) and L-PRF (leukocyte-containing platelet-rich fibrin). Fibrin gels -PRP (platelet-rich plasma) and PRF- are optimal as scaffolds for tissue engineering for various reasons. The most important reason is the compatibility with the cell life of fibrin, which is different according to different completely biodegradable natural substances, and it facilitates the transition to a new extracellular reticule. In addition to mediating primary hemostasis and thrombosis, platelets play an important role in repairing and regenerating tissues. They regulate the primary mechanisms involved in the healing process, including cell migration, proliferation, and angiogenesis. The PRF clot forms a robust fibrin grid with a complex 3-dimensional architecture. By quantifying the presence of growth factors [Growth factor derived from platelets (PDGF-BB), transforming growth factor b1 (TGF-1b), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)] in PRF, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses revealed that slow fibrin polymerisation during PRF processing leads to the intrinsic constitution of platelets of cytokines and glycan chains in fibrin reticulum.1 P-PRF and L-PRF are biological materials with solid fibrin and/or containing leukocytes. All the platelets contained in blood samples taken are activated and integrated into the coagulum fibrin reticulum. Approximately 97% of platelets and 50% of leukocytes are concentrated in the PRF clot showing a specific 3-dimensional distribution.

Growth factors released by L-PRF, particularly TGF-1b, platelets induce and control the proliferation and migration of other types of cells involved in tissue repair such as smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).

The control of apoptosis and cell survival and interaction with progenitor cells are clinically important; however, the aspects of platelets in tissue repair are poorly understood, which are highlighted in this rewiew.


The advantages in the production/use of the PRF’s compared to the PRP are:


  1. None biochemical blood manipulation;
  2. Simplified and cheaper manufacture;
  3. Use of bovine thrombin and anticoagulants are not requested;
  4.  Positive healing thanks to a slow polymerization;
  5.  More efficient cellular migration and proliferation;
  6.  PRF have a good effect on immune system;
  7.  PRF helps haemostasis [1].

Retraction Notice: This paper has been retracted from the journal. This journal is determined to promote integrity in research publication. This retraction is in spirit of the same. After formal procedures editor(s) and publisher have retracted this paper on 8th November-2019. Related policy is available here:

Blood derivatives, growth factors, leucocyte and platelets rich fibrin, plasma rich platelets, stem cells.

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How to Cite
Crisci, A., & Crescenzo, U. (2018). Retracted: Platelet-rich Concentrates (L-PRF, PRP) in Tissue Regeneration: Control of Apoptosis and Interactions with Regenerative Cells. International Journal of Pathogen Research, 1(3), 1-8. Retrieved from
Review Article