Antibiogram Testing of Bacterial Isolates from Cassava, Yam and Plantain Flours and Shelf Life Studies of the Products Sold in Some Markets in Port Harcourt, Nigeria
International Journal of Pathogen Research,
Bacterial resistance to commonly used antibiotics is a threat to public health. This study focused on antibiogram testing of bacterial isolates from packaged and exposed cassava, plantain and yam flour using chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, gentamicin, ampiclox, rifampicin, amoxil, streptomycin, norfloxacin, ampicillin, ceporex, tarivid, nalidixic acid, peflacine, augmentin and septrin. Shelf life studies involved monitoring total viable count, total fungal count and moisture content of the flour samples stored at room temperature (28± 2°C) at 1 Wk interval for 4 Wks. Standard methods and agar diffusion technique were adopted. Bacillus sp. and Staphylococcus sp. (Gram-positive) were identified in all the flour samples. Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli (Gram negative) were isolated from exposed plantain and yam flour, respectively. Gram-positive isolates susceptible and resistant to each antibiotic ranged between 65.38-96.15% and 3.85-30.77%, respectively whereas that of Gram-negative isolates was between 25-75%. Antibiogram testing revealed that 76.92 and 30.77% of Bacillus and Staphylococci isolates, respectively were sensitive; 100% Salmonella sp. and E. coli (isolate OMY) was resistant and sensitive, respectively. Among antibiotics used for Gram-positive bacteria, rifampicin was most effective whereas streptomycin, tarivid, nalidixic acid, gentamycin, augmentin and ciprofloxacin were more effective than other antibiotics used for Gram negative bacteria. During storage of the flour samples, moisture content (8.6-23.20%) and total viable count (6.47-6.86 log10cfu/g) increased but total fungal count (3.53-2.15 log10cfu/g) decreased with few exceptions. Therefore, reduction in microbial contamination of edible flours by implementing good manufacturing practices and proper packaging of the commercialized products could reduce the spread of antimicrobial resistant bacteria.
- shelf life
- bacterial isolates
How to Cite
Zakpaa HD, Mak-Mensah EE, Adubofour J. Production and characterization of flour produced from ripe ‘apem’ plantain (Musa sapientum L. var. paradisiacal; French horn) grown in Ghana. J Agric. Biotech. Sustainable Dev. 2010;2(6):92-99.
Somorin YM, Bankole MO, Omemu AM, Atanda OO. Impact of milling on the microbiological quality of yam flour in Southwestern Nigeria. Resear. J Microbiol. 2011;6:480-487.
Gacheru PK, Abong GO, Okoth MW, Lamuka PO, Shibairo SA, Katama CKM. Microbiological safety and quality of dried cassava chips and flour sold in Nairobi and coastal regions of Kenya. Afri. Crop Sci. J. 2016;24:137-143.
Imarhiagbe EE, Obayagbona OO, Eghomwanre AF. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial isolates and physic-chemical composition of maize flour sold in major markets in Benin City, Midwestern Nigeria. Studia Universitatis Babeş-Bolyai Biologia. 2016;51(2):5-12.
Omohimi C, Piccirillo C, Ferraro V, Roriz MC, Omemu MA, Santos SM, Ressurreição SD, Abayomi L, Adebowale A, Vasconcelos MW, Obadina O, Sanni L, Pintado MME. Safety of yam-derived (Dioscorea rotundata) foodstuffs-chips, flakes and post-processing conditions. Foods. 2019:8(12):1-19.
Alum EA, Urom SMOC, Ben CMA. Microbiological contamination of food: The mechanisms, impacts and prevention. Intl. J Sci. Tech. Resear. 2016;5(3):65- 78.
Opara UL, Mditshwa A. A review on the role of packaging in securing food system: Adding value to food products and reducing losses and waste. Afri. J Agric. Resear. 2013;8:2621-2630.
Aruwa CE, Ogundare O. Microbiological quality assessment of pupuru and plantain flours in an urban market in Akure, Ondo state, South Western Nigeria. Open Access Library J. 2017;4:1-11.
Akinola OT, Owoseni AA. Analysis of the shelf life of soya bean (Glycine max) flour. Microbiol. Resear. J Intl. 2017;20(4):1-6.
Banerjee M, Sarkar PK. Antibiotic resistance and susceptibility to some food preservative measures of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms from spices. Food Microbiol. 2004;21:335-342.
Mąka L, Maćkiw E, Ścieżyń H, Popowska M. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from other than meat in Poland. Annals Agric. Environ. Med. 2015;22(3):403-408.
Odu NN, Njoku HO, Mepha HD. Microbiological quality of smoked-dried mangrove oysters (Crassoostrea gasar) sold in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Agric. Bio. J North America. 2012;3(9):360-364.
Eman MS, Sherifa MS. Microbiological loads for some types of cooked chicken meat products at Al-Taif Governorate, KSA. World Appli. Sci. J. 2012;17(5):593-597.
American Public Health Association (APHA). Committee on microbial methods of foods compendium of for the microbiological examination of food 4th Edition Washington. 2001;676.
Cheesbrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries, Part 2. Cambridge University Press. 2000;400-434.
Tagoe DNA, Nyarko H, Arthur SA, Birikorang E. A study of antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacteria isolates in sachet drinking water sold in the cape coast metropolis of Ghana. Resear. J Microbiol. 2011;6(2):153-158.
Onifade AK, Afolami OI. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella spp from clinical and water samples in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Asian J Resear. Med. Pharm. Sci. 2018;5(91):1-10.
Bradely RL. Moisture and total solids analysis. In Food Analysis 3rd Edition. Eds. Harbers LH, Nielsen SS. 2003;81-101.
Kadariya J, Smith TC, Thapaliya D. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcal food-borne disease: An ongoing challenge in public health. Biomed Resear. Intl. 2014;1-9.
Rahman HS, Othman HH. Salmonella infection: The cause of human food poisoning. Progress in Biosci. Bioengineer. 2017;1(1):5-10.
Agwa OK, Ossai-Chidi LN. Public health significance of food borne pathogens in edible flours. Afri. J Microbiol. Resear. 2015;9(8):509-514.
Hennekinne JA, Buyser MLD, Dragacci S. Staphylococcus aureus and its food poisoning toxins: Characterization and outbreak investigation. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 2012;36:815-836.
Finn S, Hinton JCD, Mcclure P, Amézquita A, Martins M, Fanning S. Phenotypic characterization of Salmonella isolated from food production environments associated with low-water activity foods. J Food Protection. 2013;1-14.
Ajayi AO. Microbiological quality of plantain (Musa paradisiacal). Nig. J Microbiol. 2016;30(2):3962-3969.
Ali SQ, Zehra A, Naqvi BS, Shah S, Bushra R. Resistance pattern of ciprofloxacin against different pathogens. Oman Medical Journal. 2010;25(4):294-298.
Oluyege AO, Dada AC, Ojo AM, Oluwadare E. Antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates from food sold on a university campus in South Western Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009;8(21):5883-5887.
Adabara NU, Ezugwu BU, Momojimoh A, Madzu A, Hashiimu Z, Damisa D. The prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella typhi among patients attending a military hospital in Minna, Nigeria. Advances in Preventive Medicine. 2012;1-4.
Nair DVT, Venkitanarayanan K, Johny AK. Antibiotic-resistant Salmonella in the food supply and the potential role of antibiotic alternatives for control. Foods. 2018; 7(167):1-24.
Zaki SA, Karande S. Multidrug-resistant fever: A review. J. Infect. Dev. Ctries. 2011;5(5):324-337.
Bhetwal A, Maharjan A, Khanal PR, Parajuli NP. Enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica Serovars with reduced susceptibility of fluoroquinolones at a community based teaching hospital of Nepal. Intl. J Microbiol. 2017;1-6.
Miranda JM, Mondragon A, Rodriguez JA, Guarddon M, Nebot CG, Galán-Vidal CA, Coronel-Olivares C. Presence and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from foodstuffs in Hidalgo State (Mexico). CyTA- J Food. 2010;8(1):15-21.
International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF). Microorganisms in Foods 6: Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities; Springer: New York, NY, USA; 1998.
CAC. CODEX STAN 176-1989. Codex standard for edible cassava flour. Adopted 1989, Revision 1995, Amendment; 2013.
Chukwu O, Abdullahi H. Effects of moisture content and storage period on proximate composition, microbial counts and total carotenoids of cassava flour. Intl. J Sci. Engineer. Tech. 2015;2(11):753- 763.
Ogundare-Akanmu OA, Inana ME, Adindu MN. Preliminary quality evaluation of selected plantain flour (Musa paradisiacal) sold in Port Harcourt markets, Nigeria. Food Sci. Quality Mgt. 2015;35:7-10.
Lawal BM, Olaoye IO, Ibrahim SO, Sanusi BA, Oni IO. Shelf life of yam flour using two different packaging materials. Ameri. J Food Sci. Nutri. 2014;1(1):18-23.
Uchechukwu–Agua AD, Caleb OJ, Manley M, Opara UL. Effects of storage conditions and duration on physicochemical and microbial quality of the flour of two cassava cultivars (TME 419 and UMUCASS 36). CyTA- J Food. 2015;13(4):635-645.
Abstract View: 1771 times
PDF Download: 871 times