Main Article Content
Rice blast disease is one of the major constraints to rice production, threatening food security globally. Rice grain production losses due to the disease leads economic losses to the farmers, and to an increase in global rice price as a result of the supply that is far below the consumer demand. The losses from the disease annually was estimated to feed over 60 million individual. The disease has been studied comprehensively by researchers due to the importance attached to rice and its vast spread and destructiveness across the globe. A good understanding of the pathogen causing the disease, its life cycle and development, epidemiology, symptoms, management strategy will offer a good insight into the disease incidence and give an appropriate and effective decision-making in its management. Different control measures have been adopted managing the disease, including the use of resistant varieties. Integrated disease management strategies coupled with good agronomy practices are required for successful control of rice blast for food security. This review, therefore, examined the fundamentals of rice blast disease (Magnaporthe oryzae) and offered strategies to minimize the disease activities to ensure proper production and increase the supply of rice grains.
Wang Y, Li, J. The plant architecture of rice (Oryza sativa). Plant Mol. Biol. 2005; 59(1):75–84.
Thirze H. Modelling Grain Surplus and Deficit in Cameroon for 2030. Master’s Thesis, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, 2016;59.
Nguyen NV. Global Climate Changes and Rice Food Security; FAO: Rome, Italy; 2002.
Zhang F, Xie, J. Genes and QTLs resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses from wild rice and their applications in cultivar improvements, rice-germplasm, genetics and improvement; Yan, W., Bao, J., Eds.; Intech Open: Rijeka, Croatia; 2014.
Miah G, Rafii MY, Ismail MR, Puteh MB, Rahim HR, Asfaliza R, Latif MA. Blast resistance in rice: A review of conventional breeding to molecular approaches. Mol. Biol. Rep. 2013;40:2369–2388.
Nasruddin A, Amin N. Effects of cultivar, planting period, and fungicide usage on rice blast infection levels and crop yield. J. Agril. Sci. 2013;5(1):160-167.
Prasad PVV, Boote KJ, Allen LH, Sheehy JE, Thomas JMG. Species, ecotype and cultivar differencesin spikelet fertility and harvest index of rice in response to high temperature stress. Field Crop. Res. 2006; 95:398–411.
Dean R, Van Kan JA, Pretorius ZA, Hammond-Kosack KE, Di Pietro A, Spanu PD. The top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology. Mol. Plant Pathol. 2012;13:414–430.
Zhu YY, Fang H, Wang YY, Fan JX, Yang SS, Mew TW, Mundt CC. Panicle blast and canopy moisture in rice cultivar mixtures. Phytopathol. 2005;95:433-436.
Scheuermann KK, Raimondi JV, Marschalek R, de Andrade A, Wickert E. Magnaporthe oryzae genetic diversity and its outcomes on the search for durable resistance. Molecular Basis Plant Genetics Diversity book edited by Mahmut Caliskan, 2012;331–356.
ISBN 978-953-51- 0157-4,
Couch BC, Kohn LM. A multilocus gene genealogy concordant with host prefserence indicates segregation of new species, Magnaporthe oryzae from M. grisea. Mycologia. 2002;94(4):683–693.
Sy AA, Albertini L, Hamant C. Effect of the pH on mycelial growth conidia formation and conidial germination of Pyricularia oryzae. Bulletin de Toulouse Histoire naturella de Toulouse. 1977;113: 200-11.
Hossain MD. Studies on Blast disease of rice caused by Pyricularia grisea (cooke) Sacc. In upland areas. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. 2000;52-53.
Dean RA, Talbot NJ, Ebbole, DJ, Farman ML, Mitchell TK, Orbach MJ. Read ND. The genome sequence of the rice blast fungus. Magnaporthe grisea Nat. 2005; 434:980. [CrossRef].
Pennisi E. Armed and dangerous. Science 2010;327:804–805.
Agrios GN. Plant pathology. Fifth Edition, Elsevier Academic Press. 2006;398-400.
Wilson RA, Talbot NJ. Under pressure: Investigating the biology of plant infection by Magnaporthe oryzae. Nature Review Microbiol. 2009;7(3):185-95. [PubMed].
Talbot NJ. On the trail of a cereal killer: Exploring the biology of Magnaporthe grisea. Ann. Review of Microbiol. 2003; 57:177-202.
de Jong JC, McCormack BJ, Smirnoff N, Talbot NJ. Glycerol generates turgor in rice blast. Nature. 1997;389:471-483.
Giraldo MC, Dagdas YF, Gupta YK, Mentlak, TA, Yi M, Martinez-Rocha AL, Valent B. Two Distinct secretion systems facilitate tissue invasion by the rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae). Nat. Commun. 2013;4:1996. [CrossRef].
Dagdas YF, Yoshino K, Dagdas G, Ryder LS, Bielska E, Steinberg G, Talbot NJ. Septin-mediated plant cell invasion by the rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae). Science 2012;336:1590–1595.[CrossRef].
Sesma A, Osbourn AE. The rice leaf blast pathogen undergoes developmental processes typical of root-infecting fungi. Nature. 2004;431:582. [CrossRef].
Veneault-Fourrey C, Barooah M, Egan M, Wakley G, Talbot NJ. Autophagic fungal cell death is necessaryfor infection by the rice blast fungus. Science 2006;312:580–583.
Saunders DG, Dagdas YF, Talbot NJ. Spatial uncoupling of mitosis and cytokinesis during appressorium-mediated plant infection by the rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae). Plant Cell. 2010; 22, 2417–2428. [CrossRef] [PubMed].
Kingsolver CH, Barkside TH, Marchetti MA. Rice Blast Epidemiology: Bulletin of the pennsylvania agricultural experiment station; No.853; Pennsylvania State College, Agricultural Experiment Station: StateCollege, PA, USA, 1984;29–40.
Guerber C, TeBeest DO. Infection of rice seed grown in Arkansas by Pyricularia grisea and transmission by seedlings in the field. Plant Dis. 2006;90(2)170-176.
Raveloson H, Ratsimiala Ramonta I, Tharreau D, Sester M. Long term survival of blast pathogen in infected rice residues as major source of primary inoculum in high altitude upland ecology. Plant Pathol. 2018;67:610–618. [CrossRef].
Kankanala P, Czymmek K, Valent B. Roles for rice membrane dynamics and plasmodesmata duringbiotrophic invasion by the blast fungus. Plant Cell 2007;19: 706–724. [CrossRef] [PubMed].
Rosenzweig C, Yang XB, Anderson P. Epstein P. Vicarelli, M. Agriculture: Climate change, crop pests and diseases. In climte change futures: Health ecological economic dimensios; The Center for Health and the Global Environment at Harvard Medical School. USA. 2005;70–77.
Castilla N, Savary S, Veracruz CM, Leung H. Rice blast: Rice fact sheets. International Rice Research Institute. 2009;1-3.
Padmanabhan SY. Fungal diseases of rice in India. 1st ed. Indian council of Agriculture Research, New Delhi.1974;15.
Ram T, Majumder TND, Mishra B, Ansari MM, Padmavathi G. Introduction of broad spectrum blast resistance genes into cultivated rice (Oryza sativa sp. indica) from wild rice Oryza rufipogon. Curr. Sci. 2007;92(2):225-230.
Bonman JM, Estrada BA, Kim CM, Ra DS, Lee EJ. Assessment of blast disease and yield loss in susceptible and partially resistant rice cultivars in two irrigated lowland environments. Plant Disease. 1991;75:462-466.
Manandhar HK, Lyngs Jorgensen HJ, Mathur SB, Smedegaard-Petersen V. Resistance to rice blast induced by ferric chloride, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and salicylic acid. Crop Prot. 1998;17(4): 323-329..
Bonman JM. Blast In: Compendium of rice disease, Webster, R.K. and P.S. Gunnel (Eds.). The American Phytopathological Society, Minnesota. 1992;14-18.
Filippi MC, Prabhu AS. Integrated effect of host plant resistance and fungicidal seed treatment on rice blast control in Brazil. Plant Dis. 1997;81:351-355.
Sester M, Raveloson H, Tharreau D, Dusserre J. Conservation agriculture cropping system to limit blast disease in upland rainfed rice. Plant Pathology. 2014; 63(2):373–381.
Magar PB, Acharya B, and Pandey B. Use of chemicals for the management of rice blast (Pyricularia grisea) disease at Jyotinagar, Chitwan, Nepal. Inter. J. Appl. Sci. Biotec. 2015;3(3):474-478.
Yang JH, Liu HX, Zhu GM, Pan YL, Xu LP,GuoJH. Diversity analysis of antagonists from rice-associated bacteria and their application in biocontrol of rice diseases. J. Appl. Microb. 2008;104(1):91-104.
Miah G,Rafii MY, Ismail MR,Puteh AB, Rahim HA, Latif MA. Marker-assisted introgression of broad-spectrum blast resistance genes into the cultivated MR219 rice variety. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2017;97: 2810-2818.
Parimelazhagan T. Botanical fungicide for the control of rice blast disease. Bioved. 2001;12(1/2):11-15.
Hubert J, Mabagala RB, Mamiro DP. Efficacy of selected plant extracts against Pyricularia grisea, causal agent of rice blast disease. Amer. J. Plant Sci. 2015;6: 602-611.
Luong MC, Hoang DC, Phan TB, Luong TP, Jiaan C, Heong KL. Impacts of nutrition management on insect pests and diseases of rice. Omon rice 2003;11:93-102.
Salami, A. E. and Agbowuro GO. Gene action and heritability estimates of grain yield and disease incidence traits of low-N Maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines. Agriculture And Biology Journal Of North Americ. 2016;7(2):50-54.
Long DH, Lee FN, TeBeest DO. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on disease progress of rice blast on susceptible and resistant cultivars. Plant Dis. 2000;84(4):403-409.
Snoeijers SS, Perez-Garcia A, Joosten MHAJ, DeWit PJ. The effect of nitrogen ondisease development and gene expression in bacterial and fungal plant pathogens. Euro. J. Plant Pathol. 2000; 10(6):493-506
Massey FP, Hartley SE. Experimental demonstration of the antiherbivore effects of silica in grasses: impacts on foliage digestibility and growth rates. Proceed. Royal Soc. B. 2006;273:2299-2304.
Prabhu AS, Filho MPB, Filippi MC, Datnoff LE, Snyder GE. Silicon from rice disease control perspective in Brazil. In: Datnoff, L.E., Snyder, G.H. and Korndörfer, G.H. (Eds.) Silicon in Agriculture. Studies in Plant Science, Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands 2001;8:293-311.
Zeigler RS, Leong SA, Teng PS. Rice Blast disease. Wallingford (UK): CAB International. 1994;626.
Zhou E, Jia Y, Singh P, Correll J, Lee F. Instability of the Magnaporthe oryzae Virulence gene AVR pita alters virulence. Fungal Genet. Biol. 2007;44:1024-1034. DOI:10.1016/j.fgb.2007.02.003 PMID:17387027
Hasan MM, Rafii MY, Ismail MR, Mahmood M, Alam MA, Rahim HA, Malek MA, Latif MA. Introgression of blast resistance genes into the elite rice variety MR263 through marker-assisted back-crossing. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2016;96(4): 1297-1305.
Chen DX, Chen XW, Wang YP, Zhu LH, Li SG. Genetic transformation of rice with Pi-d2 gene enhances resistance to rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Rice Sci. 2010;17:19–27. [CrossRef].
Sharma TR, Madhav MS, Singh BK, Shanker P, Jana TK, Dalal V, Pandit A, Singh A, Gaikwad K, Upreti HC, Singh NK. High resolution mapping, cloning and molecular characterization of the Pi-khgene of rice, which confers resistance to M. grisea. Mol. Genet. Genomics. 2015; 274(6):569–578.
Miah G, Rafii MY, Ismail MR, Puteh AB, Rahim HA, Ashkani S, Latif MA. Inheritance patterns and identification of microsatellite markers linked to the rice blast resistance in BC2F1 population of rice breeding. Bragantia. 2015b;74(1):33-41.
Latif MA, Badsha MA, Tajul MI, Kabir MS, Rafii MY, Mia MAT. Identification of genotypes resistant to blast, bacterial leaf blight, sheath blight and tungro and efficacy of seed treating fungicides against blast disease of rice. Scient. Res. Essays. 2011;6:2804-2811.
Ashkani S, Rafii MY, Sariah M, Abdullah SNA, Rahim HA, Latif MA. Analysis of simple sequence repeat markers linked with blast disease resistance genes in a segregating population of rice (Oryza sativa). Genet. Mol. Res. 2011;10(3): 1345-1355.
Kaundal R, Kapoor AS, Raghava GPS. Machine learning techniques in disease forecasting: A case study on rice blast prediction. BMC Bioinformatics. 2006;7: 485.
Qu S, Liu G, Zhou B, Bellizzi M, Zeng L, Dai L. The broad-spectrum blast resistance gene Pi9 encodes a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat protein and is a member of a multigene family in rice. Genetics. 2006;172(3):1901-1914.
Suprapta DN. Potential of microbial antagonists as biocontrol agents against plant fungal pathogens. J.ISSAAS. 2012; 18:1–8.