Bioaerosol Assessment of Selected Offices within a Polytechnic

Main Article Content

A. Asifamabia Dick
C. Wekhe

Abstract

Aim: Microorganisms are ubiquitous in the built environment and their presence has been documented to have adverse effect on the users of such buildings. This study was conducted to assess the Bioaerosol concentrations of selected offices.

Study Design:  A random sampling technique was adopted to select the eight (8) offices for the study based on accessibility and visitation.

Place and Duration of Study:    The study was carried out in selected offices within Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, Rumuola, Port Harcourt.           

Methodology:   Sedimentation technique was employed for the assessment involving Nutrient Agar, Mac Conkey Agar and Potato Dextrose Agar. The analysis was replicated thrice for both morning and afternoon sessions

Results: The results reveal that the mean total heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged from 5.85 x 103cfu/m3 (SUG Office) to 3.80 x 104 cfu/m3 (Lecturer Office 2) for the morning session while the afternoon session ranged from 1.13 x 104 cfu/m3 (SUG Office) to 6.54 x 104 cfu/m3 (Lecturer Office 2). The mean total coliform counts for the morning session ranged from 1.17 x 104 cfu/m3 (ICE Office) to 4.07 x 104 cfu/m3 (Lecturer Office 2) while the afternoon session ranged from 7.87 x 103 cfu/m3 (Admission Office) to 2.40 x 104 cfu/m3 (DSA Office). The mean total fungal counts ranged from 1.24 x 104 cfu/m3 (DSA Office) to 3.91 x 104 cfu/m3 (CSO Office) for the morning session while the afternoon session ranged from 8.87 x 103 cfu/m3 (CSO office) to 5.13 x 104 cfu/m3 (Lecturer Office 2).

Conclusion: This shows that the selected offices in Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic are being affected by the airborne bacteria and fungi higher than the recommended limit of 103 cfu/m3. This can result in health challenges of the staff and students thereby reducing productivity, hence a need to control factors that increase the presence of bioaerosols and ensure good sanitary practices in offices.

Keywords:
Air quality, bacteria, bioaerosol, fungi, office, polytechnic

Article Details

How to Cite
Dick, A. A., & Wekhe, C. (2020). Bioaerosol Assessment of Selected Offices within a Polytechnic. International Journal of Pathogen Research, 5(1), 28-35. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2020/v5i130125
Section
Original Research Article

References

Cincinelli, A. Martellini, T. Indoor air quality and health. Int. J. Environ Res. Public Health. 2017;14:1286.

Nasir ZA, Colbeck I, Sultan S, Ahmed S. Bioaerosols in residential micro-environments in low income countries: A case study from Pakistan. Environ. Pollut. 2012;168:15–22.

Fadeyi MO, Wescher CJ, Tham KW, Wu WY, Sultan ZM. Impact of human presence on secondary organic aerosols derived from ozone-initiated chemistry in a stimulated office environment. Environ. Sci. Techn.2013;47:3933-3941.

Weschler CJ. Roles of human occupant in indoor chemistry. Indoor Air. 2016;26:6-24.

Lal H, Ghosh B, Srivastava A, Srivastava A. Identification and Characterization of Size-Segregated Bioaerosols at Different Sites in Delhi. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 2017; 17:1570–1581.

Hoseinzadeh E, Mohammad RS, Sayed AG, Mohammad YA, Ghodratollah R. Evaluation of bioaerosols in five educational hospitals wards air in hamedan, during 2011-2012. Jundishapur J.Microbiol. 2013;6(6):1-8.

Stetzenbach LD, Buttner MP, Cruz P. Detection and enumeration of airborne biocontaminants. Curr. Opinion Biotech. 2004;15:170–174.

Alli Aboresede S, Ana GREE. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of bioaerosols and meterological conditions of selected salons in Four Areas of Ibadan North Local Government Area. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. 2017;5(3):83-90.

Sheik GB, Al Rheam AIAA, Al Shehri ZS, Otaibi OBM. Asseement of bacteria of bacteria and fungi in air from college of applied medical science (Male) at AD-Dawadmi, Saudi Arabia. International Research Journal of Biological Science. 2015;4(9):48-53.

Yazicioglu M, Asan A, Ones U, Vatansever U, Sen B, Ture M, et al. Indoor air Fungal spores and home characteristics in asthmatic children from Edirne Region of Turkey. J. Allergy and Clin.Immunol. 2004; 32(4):197-203.

Gołofit-Szymczak M,Górny RL. Bacterial and fungal aerosols in air-conditioned office buildings in Warsaw, Poland-the winter season. Int. J. Occup. Saf. Ergon. 2010;16:465–476.

Gołofit-Szymczak M, Górny RL. Microbiological air quality in office buildings equipped with different ventilation systems. Indoor Air. 2018;28:792–805.

Nazaroff WW. Indoor bioaerosol dynamics. Indoor Air. 2016;26:61–78.

Reponen T, Grinshpun SA, Conwell KL, Wiest J, Anderson M. Aerodynamic versus physical size of spores: Measurement and implication on respiratory deposition. Grana. 2001;40:119–125.

Gorny RL, Dutkiewicz J. Bacterial and fungal aerosols in indoor environment in Central and Eastern European countries. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 2002; 9:17–23.

Norbäck D, Hashim JH, Markowicz P, Cai GH, Hashim Z, Ali F, et al. Endotoxin, ergosterol, muramic acid and fungal DNA in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia—Associations with rhinitis and sick building syndrome (SBS) in junior high school students. Sci. Total Environ. 2016; 545:95–103.

Srikanth P, Sudharsanam S, Steinberg R. Bioaerosols in indoor environment: Composition, health effects and analysis. Indian J. of Med. Microbiol. 2008;26(4): 302-312.

Mostafa AM, Al-Fifi ZI, Alawlaqi MM, Al Abboud AM. Indoor air borne fungi in Faculty of Science in Aboarish, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. J. Jazan Uni. Appl. Sci. Brew. 2012;1(2):26-35.

Stryjakowska-Sekulska M, Piotraszewska-Pajak A, Szyszka A, Norwicki M, Filipiak M. Microbiological quality of indoor air in University rooms. Polish J. Environ. Stud. 2007;16(4):623-632.

Bragoszewska E, Biedron I. Indoor Air Quality and Potential health risk impacts of exposure to antibiotic resistant bacteria in an office rooms in southern Poland. International J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2018;15(11):2604-2620.

Sheik GB, Al Rheam AIAA, Al Shehri ZS, Al Otaibi OBM.Assessment of bacteria and Fungi in air from College of Applied medical Sciences (Male) at AD-Dawadmi, Saudi Arabia. Int. Res. J. Biol. Sci. 2015; 4(9):48-53.

Kalogerakis N, Paschali D, Lekaditis V, Pantidou A, Eleftheriadis K, Lazaridis M. Indoor air quality-bioaerosol measurements in domestic and office premises. J. Aerosol Sci. 2005;36:751-761.

Numes ZG, Martins AS, Altoe ALF, Nishikawa MN, Leite MO, Aguiar PF, et. al.Indoor air microbiological evaluation of offices, hospitals, industries and shopping centres. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2005 ;100(4):351-357.

Samuel FH, Abayneh MM. Microbiological Quality of Indoor Air in University Libraries. Asian Pacific J. Trop. Biomed. 2014;4(1): 312-317.

Katiyar V. Assessment of indoor air micro-flora in selected schools. Adv. Environ. Res. 2013;2(1):61-80.

Tiku DR, Bassey IU, Asikong EBE. Evaluation of indoor and outdoor air quality in selected offices and laboratories in University of Calabar. Euro. J. Pharm. Med. Res. 2017;69(5):521-531.

Sule IO, Ababiaka TS, Saliu TS, Zakariyah MB, Odebisi-Omokanye BK, Ali AA. Al-Hikumah J. Pure Appl. Sci. 2017;4:31-36.

Andualem Z, Gizaw Z, Bogale L, Dagne H. Indoor bacterial load and correlation to physical indoor air quality parameters in public primary schools. Multidiscip. Respir. Med. 2019;14(2):1-7.

Cobanglu N, Kiper N. Bina icisolunanhavadatehlikeler. Cocuk Sagligive Hastaliklari Dergisi. 2006;49:71-75.

Mirhoseini SH, Nikaeen M, Satoh K, Makimur K. Assessment of airborne particles in indoor environments: Applicability of particles counting for prediction of bioaerosol concentrations. Aerosol Air Quality Res. 2016;16(8):1903-1910

Mentese S, Arisoy M, Rad AY, Güllü G.Bacteria and fungi levels in various indoor and outdoor environments in Ankara, Turkey. Clean Soil Air Water. 2009;37:487– 493.

Bonetta S, Mosso S, Sampo S, Cararo E. Assessment of Microbiological Indoor air quality in an Italian office building equipped with HVAC System. Environ.Mentor. Assess. 2010;161: 473-483.

World Health Organisation, WHO. Indoor Air Quality: Biological Contaminants. European Series, No.31, Copenhagen: WHO Regional Publication; 1990.

Available:https://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_nlinks&pid=S15168913201900010060700026&lng=en

Enitan SS, Ihongbe JC, Ochei JO, Effedua HI, Adeyemi O, Phillps T. Microbiological assessment of indoor air quality of some selected primary schools in lishan – Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria. Int. J. Med. Health Res. 2017;3(6):8-19.

Muhamad F, Zairi A, Talib M. Preliminary assessment of indoor air quality in terrace house. Health and Environ. J. 2011;2(2):8-14.

Mouli PC, Mohan SV, Reddy SJ. Assessment of microbial (bacteria) concentrations of ambient air at semi-arid urban region: Influence of meterological factor. AEER. 2005;139-149.

Durugbo EU, Kajero AO, Omoregie EI, Oyejide NE.A Survey of outdoor and indoor airborne fungal spora in the Redemption City, Ogun State, South-Western Nigeria. Aerobiologia. 2012; 21(3-4).

Shelton BG, Kirkland KH, Flanders WD, Morris GK. Profiles of airborne fungi in buildings and outdoor environments in the United States. Appl. Environ Microbiol. 2002;68(4):1743-1753.