Characterization of Phytophthora infestans Isolates from Two Potato Varieties in the Highlands Agro-Ecological Zone of Cameroon

Main Article Content

Sylvere Landry Dida Lontsi
Alain Heu
Joseph Djeugap Fovo
William Norbert Kuate Tueguem
Mbatkam Biamen
Fabrice Christian Gbaporo Gbaporo
Zachee Ambang

Abstract

Background: Late blight caused by Oomycete Phytophthora infestans remains a huge problem in potato production and one of the most severe crop diseases worldwide. In Cameroon, the populations characterization of this pathogen remain very little known.

Aims: This study aims to characterize isolates of P. infestans collected in twelve localities of Highlands zone of Cameroon.

Study Design: Twelve localities in three main potato production areas of the Highlands agro-ecological zone (HAZ) in Cameroon were selected for sample collection. The phenotypic parameters of sporangia were measured. The presence of mating types and pathogenicity tests on detached leaflets of two potato varieties (MANATE and CIPIRA) were assessed.

Results: A total of 36 isolates were collected. Height (08) Sporangia shape of P. infestans were obtain and 02 new different shape were pip form and oval to ellipsoid. Sporangia length/width ratio ranged from 1.62 to 2.18. Mating types A1 and A2 were present in the studied areas. Pathogenicity test on detached potato leaflets was positive with all the 36 isolates. The isolate HPBT02 from Tsela locality was more aggressive (P<0.05). MANATE variety was more susceptible.

Conclusion: The study shows that mating types A1 and A2 of P. infestans exit in Cameroon and the morphology of sporangia varies according to the localities. Molecular characterization is needed.

Keywords:
Potato, Phytophthora infestans, isolates, phenotypic characterization, mating types, Cameroon

Article Details

How to Cite
Lontsi, S. L. D., Heu, A., Fovo, J. D., Tueguem, W. N. K., Biamen, M., Gbaporo, F. C. G., & Ambang, Z. (2020). Characterization of Phytophthora infestans Isolates from Two Potato Varieties in the Highlands Agro-Ecological Zone of Cameroon. International Journal of Pathogen Research, 5(1), 36-44. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2020/v5i130126
Section
Original Research Article

References

Hijmans R, Forbes G, Walter, T. Estimating the global severity of potato late blight with gis-linked disease forecast models. Plant Pathology. 2000;49:697-705.

Fontem DA, Olanya OM, Tsopmbeng GR, Owona MAP. Pathogenicity and metalaxyl sensitivity of Phytophthora infestans isolates obtained from garden huckleberry, potato and tomato in Cameroon. Crop Protection. 2005;24:449–456.

Fry WE, Birch PRJ, Judelson HS, Gruenwald NJ, Danies G, Everts KL, Gevens AJ, Gugino BK, Johnson DA, Johnson SB, McGrath MT, Myers KL, Ristaino JB, Roberts PD, Secor G, Smart CD. Five reasons to consider Phytophthora infestans a reemerging pathogen. Phytopathology. 2015;105(7):966–981.

Strange RN. Introduction to plant pathology, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK. 2003;464.

Dorn B, Musa T, Krebs H, Fried PM, Forrer HR. Control of late blight in organic potato production: evaluation of copper free preparations under field, growth chamber and laboratory conditions. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 2007;119:217 240.

Goufo P, Teugwa MC. Fontem DA, Ngnokam D. High efficacy of extracts of Cameroon plants against tomato late blight disease. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 2008;28: 567-573.

Goufo P, Fontem DA, Ngnokam D. Evaluation of plant extracts for tomato late blight control in Cameroon. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science. 2010;38(3):171-176.

Djeugap FJ, Fontem AD, Tapondjou LA, Efficacité in vitro et in vivo des extraits de plantes contre le mildiou (Phytophthora infestans) de la morelle noire. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 2011;5(6):2205-2213.

Ambang Z, Ndongo B, Bime, Ngoh D, Maho Y, Ntsomboh G. Effect of mycorrhizal inoculum and urea fertilizer on diseases development and yield of groundnut crops (Arachis hypogaea L.). African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7(16):2823-282.

Cooke LR, Schepers HTAM, Hermansen A, Bain RA, Bradshaw NJ, Ritchie F, Shaw DS, Evenhuis A, Kessel GJT, Wander JGN, Andersson B, Hansen JG, Hannukkala A., Nęrstad, R., Nielsen, B. J. Epidemiology and Integrated Control of Potato Late Blight in Europe. Potato Research. 2011; 54:183–222.

DOI: 10.1007/s11540-011-9187-0.

Reis A, Smart CD, Fry WE, Maffia LA, Mizubuti ESG. Characterization of isolates of Phytophthora infestans from southern and southeastern Brazil from 1998 to 2000. Plant Dis. 2003;87:896-900.

Alkher H, Islam MR, Wijekoon C, Kalischuk M, Kawchuk LM, Peters RD, Al-Mughrabi KI, Conn KL, Dobinson KF, Waterer D, Daayf F. Characterization of Phytophthora infestans populations in Canada during 2012. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 2015;37(3):305-314.

Savazzini F, Galletti S. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Italian Phytophthora infestans isolates. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 2015;54(3): 524−530.

DOI: 10.14601/Phytopathol.Mediterr-16057

Abdelhadi Hammi. Caractérisation de populations de Phytophthora infestans (mont.) De bary dans la region de saïs. Thèse, University of Sidi Mohammed Ibn Abdallah. 2003;272.

Andrivon D, Pilet F, Montarry J, Hafidi M, Corbière R, Achbani EH, Pellé R, et Ellissèche D. Adaptation of Phytophthora infestans to partial resistance in potato: Evidence from French and Moroccan populations. Phytopathology. 2007;97:338-343.

Jmour, W, et Hamada W. First report of A2 mating type of Phytophthora infestans in Tunisia using molecular markers and some observation its métalaxyl resistance. Tunisian Journal of Plant protection. 2006; 1:85-91.

Beninal L, Corbiére R, Kedad A, Andrivon D, et Bouznad Z. A2 mating type, metalaxyl resistance and complex virulence profiles: Common features in some Phytophthora infestans isolates from Algeria. Proceeding of the Eleeventh Euroblight Workshop; Hamar, Norway. In PPO Special Report. 2009;13:237- 241.

Kerroum Fatima. Identification et caractérisation du Phytophthora infestans agent pathogène du mildiou de la pomme de terre et essai de lutte biologique. Thèse de Doctorat. Université d’Oran1 ‘’Ahmed Ben Bella’’.2019;132.

Cooke DEL, Cano LM, Raffaele S, Bain RA, Cooke LR, Etherington GJ, Deahl KL, Birch PRJ, Lees AK, Kamoun S. Genome analyses of an aggressive and invasive lineage of the Irish potato famine pathogen. PLOS Pathogens. 2012;8(10): 1002940.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002940

Beninal L. Diversity génétique de Phytophthora infestans agent du mildiou de la pomme de terre en Algérie. Thèse de Magister. E.N.S.A. El Harrach. 2011;92.

Zhu J, Zhang Z, Yang Z. General research methods on pathogen of potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans). Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2001;24:112-114.

Duan CH, Riley MB, Jeffers SN. Characterization of Phytophthora cinnamomi populations from ornamental plants in South Carolina, USA. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 2008;41(1):14-30.

Forbes GA. Manual for laboratory work on Phytophthora infestans. International potato centre CIP Training Manual. Quito, Equador. 1997;33.

Fontem DA, Olanya OM, Njualem BF. Reaction of certain Solanaceous and Asteraceous plant species to inoculation with Phytophthora infestans in Cameroon. J. Phytopathol. 2004;152:331-336.

Beninal L. Diversity génétique de Phytophthora infestans agent du mildiou de la pomme de terre en Algérie. Thèse de Magister. E.N.S.A. El Harrach. 2011;92.

Gallegly MC., Hong C. Phytophthora: Identifying Species by Morphology and DNA Fingerprints. APS Press –The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minnesota. 2008;158.

Coulibaly K, Kebe BI, Koffi KN, Mpika J, Kone D. Caractérisation des isolats de Phytophthora spp du verger cacaoyers de Cote d’Ivoire. Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2013;70:5567–5579.

Miller, J. The significance of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora infestans epidemiology. Global initiative on late blight. Gilb Newsletter august. 2001;14:1-3.

Harbaoui K, Lee van der Theo, Vleeshouwers GAAV, Khammassy N, Harrabi M, Hamada W. Characterisation of Phytophthora infestans isolates collected from potato and tomato crops in Tunisia during 2006–2008. Potato Research. 2013; 56:11–29.

DOI: 10.1007/s11540-012-9228-3

Pule BB, Meitz JC, Thompson AH, Linde CC, Fry WE, Langenhoven SD, Meyers KL, Kandolo DS, van Rije NC, McLeod A. Phytophthora infestans populations in central, eastern and southern African countries consist of two major clonal lineages. 2013;62:154–165.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2012.02608.x

Rekad ZF, Cooke LED, Puglisi I, Randall E, Guenaoui Y, Bouznad Z, Evoli M, Pane A, Schena L, Magnano Di San Lio G, Cacciola OS. Characterization of Phytophthora infestans populations in northwestern Algeria during 2008-2014. Fungal biology. 2017;121:467-477.

Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2017.01.004

Drenth A, Taq ICQ, Govers F. DNA Fingerprinting uncovers a new sexually reproducing population of Phythophthora infestans in the Netherlands. Europeen Journal of Plant Pathology. 1994;100:97-107.

Niks RE, Parlevliet JE, Lindhout P, Bai Z. Breeding crops with resistance to diseases and pests. The Nerderlands: Wageningen Academics Publishers. 2011;198.