Assessment of the Safety of ‘Suya’ Condiment Vended in Three Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Onoriode C. Eruteya
El-Praise J. Nmehielle

Abstract

Aims: The essence of this research was to assess the microbiological quality of suya condiments/spices sold at different points in Obio/Akpor (Choba and Rumuepirikom) and Ikwerre (Aluu) Local Government Areas, Rivers State and reduction of microbial load using home microwave oven.

Study Design: Completely randomized design with two replications and average values calculated.

Place and Duration of Study: Food and Industrial Microbiology Laboratory, University of Port and Emadavistic Medical and Research Laboratory, Osaks House, East-West road Port Harcourt for three months.

Methodology: Twelve (12) samples of already formulated suya condiments/spices were sampled from twelve different suya vendors at Choba, Rumuepirikom, and Aluu. Standard methods were used for the microbiological analyses and microbial inactivation using home microwave oven.

Results: The total plate counts (log10 CFU/g) for the samples ranged from 5.35 to 6.29, 5.67 to 6.09, and 5.88 to 6.36 for samples collected from Choba, Rumuepirikom and Aluu respectively. The isolated bacteria on the basis of cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were identified as: Staphylococcus spp. (44.4%), Salmonella spp. (11.1%), Bacillus spp. (35.2%), Shigella sp. (1.9%), Enterobacter sp. (3.7%) and Streptococcus sp. (3.7%) from all three locations. A decrease in the microbial load was noted as exposure time increased from 0 to 60 s. (exposure to what)

Conclusion: In all, suya condiments collected for this study were contaminated with bacteria of public health significance which suggest the need for microbial inactivation and an improvement in hygiene practice during processing and storage.

Keywords:
Condiment, gastroenteritis, meat, spices, suya.

Article Details

How to Cite
Eruteya, O. C., & Nmehielle, E.-P. J. (2021). Assessment of the Safety of ‘Suya’ Condiment Vended in Three Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Pathogen Research, 6(1), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i130150
Section
Original Research Article

References

Igene JO, Mohammed ID. Consumers’ attitudes towards ‘suya’ meat product. Ann Borno; 2008.

Nwakanma C, Unachukwu MN, Momoh OR. Bacteriological examination of suya meat sold in Enugu metropolis. World J Pharm Res. 2015;4(12):61-70.

Alonge DO, Hiko AA. Traditional methods of meat preservation in Nigeria. West African Farm Food Processing; 1981.

Edema MO, Osoho AT, Diala CI. Evaluation of microbial hazards associated with the processing suya (A grilled meat product). Sci. Res. Essay. 2008;3(12):621-622.

Ugwuja EI, Ugwu NC, Nwibo AN. Dietary supplement containing mixture of raw curry, garlic and ginger. The Internet J Nutri Wellness. 2009;5(2):1-5.

Akpamu U, Nwaopara AO, Izunya AM, Oaikhena GA, Okhiai O, Idonije BO, et al. A comparative study on the acute and chronic effect of oral administration of Yaji (A complex Nigerian Meat Sauce) on some hematological parameters. Bri. J. Pharm. Toxicol. 2011;3(2):108-112.

Egbebi AO, Seidu KT. Microbiological evaluation of Suya (dried smoked meat) sold in Ado and Akure South West Nigeria. Euro J Exp Biol. 2011;1(4):1-5.

Barber LI, Obinna-Echem PC, Amadi SC. Microbiological quality and antibiotic sensitivity of potential pathogens isolated from meat product (Suya) sold in Rivers State University and its environs. Int J Biotechnol Food Sci. 2018;6(4):67-76.

ICMSF (International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods). Microorganisms in food sampling for microbiological analysis: Principle and specific application 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1986.

Olayiwola IO, Oganah BC, Oguntona CRB, Popoola AR, Sanni SA, Wobo SO. Status of afflatoxin and anti-nutritional contents of standardized maize-based dishes/snacks consumed in Nigeria. Discourse J Agric Food Sci. 2013;1(5):93-96.

Eruteya OC, Odunfa SA. Antimicrobial properties of three spices used in the preparation of suya condiment against organisms isolated from formulated samples and individual ingredients. Afr J Biotechnol. 2009;8(10):2316-2320.

Giese J. Spices and seasoning blends: A taste for all seasons. Food Technol. 1994;48(4):87-98.

Ejeikwu EO, Ogbonna CIC. Species of microorganisms associated with the ingredients used in the preparation of the Nigerian take away roasted meat (Suya). Zuma J Pure Appl Sci. 1998; 1(1):7-10.

Odusole KA, Akinyanyu OO. Red Suya syndrome-acute intravascular administration and control. Consumers Safety Bull. 2003;2(2):20-24.

Iyang CU, Inyor MA, Uma EN. Bacteriological quality of a smoked meat product (Suya). Niger. Food J. 2005; 23:239-242.

FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization). Assuring Food Safety and Quality; Guidelines for Strengthening National Food Control System; 2003.

Potter NN. Food irradiation and microwave heating. In: Food Science, Springer, Dordrecht; 1986. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-7262.0_11

Farber JM, Aoust JYD, Diotte M, Sewell A, Daley E. Survival of Listeriaspp on raw whole chickens in microwave ovens. J Food Prot. 1998;61(11):1465- 1469. Available:https://doi: 10.4315/0362-028x-61.11.1465

Woo IM, Rhee IK, Park HD. Differential damage in bacterial cells by microwave radiation on the basis of cell wall structure. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000;66(5):2243-2247. Available:https://dx.doi.org/10.1128%2Faem.66.5.2243-2247.2000

Price JF, Schweigert BS. The science of meat and meat products. 2nd ed. Michigan: W. H. Freeman and Company; 1971.

Ogbonna IO, Danladi MS, Akimusire O, Odu CM. Microbiological safety and proximate composition of suya stored at ambient temperature for six hours from Maiduguri, Northern Nigeria. Internet J Food Safety. 2012;14:11-16.

Abdullahi IO, Umoh VJ, Ameh JB, Galadima M. Hazards associated with kilishi preparation in Zaria, Nigeria. Nig J Microbiol. 2004;18:339-345.

Odu NN, Akwasiam B. Bacteriological quality and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates from suya spice sold in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Nature Sci. 2016;14(6):60-68. Available:https://doi:10.7537/marsnsj14061608

Buchanan RE, Gibbons NE. Bergey’smanual of determinative bacteriology 8th Ed. William and Wilkins, Baltimore; 1974.

Dababneh BF. An innovative microwave process for microbial decontamination of spices and herbs. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2013;7(8):636-645. Available:https://doi: 10.5897/AJMR12.1487

Shamsuddeen U. Microbiological quality of spice used in the production of kilishi a traditionally dried and grilled meat product. Bayero J Pure Appl Sci. 2009;2(2):66 – 69.

ICMSF (International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Foods). Microorganisms in foods 6: Microbial ecology of food commodities. 2nd ed. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2005.

Amala SE, Onwuli DO. Bacterial burden of suys and suya spice ingredients sold in some parts of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Int J Curr Res. 2017;9(08):55665-55668.

Muhamad LJ, Ito H, Watanabe H, Tamura N. Distribution of microorganisms in spices and their decontamination by gamma-irradiation. Agric. Bioi. Chem. 1986; 50(2):347-355.

Ahene RE, Odamtten GT, Owusu E. Fungal and bacterial contaminants of six spices and spice products in Ghana. Afr J Environ Sci Technol. 2011;5(9):633-640.

Bakobie N, Addae AS, Duwiejuah AB, Cobbina SJ, Miniyila S. Microbial profile of common spices and spice blends used in Tamale, Ghana. Int J Food Contamination. 2017;4(10):1-5. Available:https://doi: 10.1186/s40550-017-0055-9

Frazier WC, Westthroff WC. Food microbiology 3rd ed. New York: McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited; 2006.

Shamsuddeen U, Ameh JB. Survey on the possible critical control points in kilishi (a traditional dried and grilled meat snack) produced in Kano. Int J Biosci. 2008;3(2):34-38.

Gedikli S, Tabak O, Tomsuk Ö, Çabuk A. Effect of microwaves on some Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. J Appl Biol Sci. 2008;2(1):67-71.

Park DK, Bitton G, Melker R. Microbial inactivation by microwave radiation in the home environment. J Environ Health. 2007;69(5):17-24.