Effect of Ciprofloxacin on the Growth and Biofilm Formation Ability of Staphylococcus aureus
International Journal of Pathogen Research,
Staphylococcus aureus is part of the normal bacterial flora of the skin, intestine and upper respiratory tract of both humans and animals and has the potential of causing staphylococcal infections if there is a breach in the hosts’ defense mechanism. These infections could range from mild superficial skin infections to more severe and even fatally invasive diseases such as sepsis and toxic shock syndrome. The infectivity of S. aureus is attributed to its ability to withstand extreme conditions and its possession of various virulence factors. The aim of this project was to study the effect of ciprofloxacin on the growth and biofilm forming ability of CM10 strain of Staphylococcus aureus using time kill study, resazurin and live/dead staining of biofilms and Real-time polymerase chain reaction. The identity of the given CM10 strain was confirmed when the result of the API-Staph was in total accordance with the results obtained from the colony morphology and phenotypic characterization tests (Coagulase/protein A, Gram, and Catalase tests). CM10 strain of S. aureus was not susceptible to 0.25mg/L of ciprofloxacin used for the time kill experiment but was susceptible to a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.5mg/L. The difference between the ciprofloxacin treated biofilms of CM10 strain and the untreated biofilms was significant (P<0.05) showing that ciprofloxacin has an adverse effect on the cells in the biofilm. The results of this study provide an insight on the growth as well as the biofilm forming ability of CM10 strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin has been shown to be an effective antibacterial against this strain of S. aureus by its inhibitory effect on the growth as well as biofilm forming ability of this strain of S. aureus. This information would assist in developing novel anti-biofilm therapies to help in the management of biofilm mediated infections thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality rate of staphylococcal infections.
- Staphylococcus aureus
- minimum inhibitory concentration
- biofilm formation
How to Cite
Archer GL. Staphylococcus aureus: a well-armed pathogen. Clinical Infectious Diseases.1998; 26(5):1179-1181.
There YW, Wadhai VS. Multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A global challenge. Drug Discovery. 1998;7(18):13-18.
Argudin MA, Mendoza MC, Rodicio MR. Food poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins. Toxins (Basel). 2010;2(7):1751-1773.
Haran KP, Godden SM, Boxrud D, Jawahir S, Bender JB, Sreevatsan S. Prevalence and characterization of staphylococcus aureus, including Methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from bulk tank milk from Minnesota dairy farms. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2012;50(3):688-695.
Lowy FD. Medical progress: Staphylococcus aureus infections. New England Journal of Medicine. 1998;339:520-532.
Kadariya J, Smith T, Thapaliya D. Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal food borne diseases: an ongoing challenge in public health. Biomed Research International. 2014;827965.
Hau SJ, Haan JS, Davies PR, Frana T, Nicholson TL. Antimicrobial Resistance Distribution Differs Among Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (ST) 5 Isolates From Health Care and Agricultural Sources. Frontiers in. Microbiology; 2018.
Monserrat-Martinez A, Gambin Y, Sierecki E. Thinking Outside the Bug: Molecular Targets and Strategies to Overcome Antibiotic Resistance. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019;20(6):1255.
Luna A, Babur Ö, Yan G, Demir E, Sander C, Korkut A. Abstract 2838: Discovery of adaptive resistance pathways and anti-resistance combination therapies in cancer from phosphoproteomic data. Cancer Research. 2018;78(13):2838.
Irazoki O, Campoy S, Barbe J. The Transient Multidrug Resistance Phenotype of Salmonella enterica Swarming Cells Is Abolished by Sub-inhibitory Concentrations of Antimicrobial Compounds. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2017;8:1360.
Indrawattana, N, Sungkhachat O, Sookrung N, Chongsa-nguan M, Tungtrongchitr A, Kurazono, H, et al. Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates: Antibiotic susceptibility, molecular characterization and ability to form biofilm. Biomed Research International; 2013.
Udo G. Pathogenic organisms in hip joint infections. International Journal of Medical Science. 2009;6(5):234-240.
Archer NK, Maraitis MJ, Costerton JN, Leid JG, Powers ME, Shirtliff ME. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: properties, regulation and roles in human disease. Virulence. 2011;2(5):445-459.
Ortega E, Abriovel H, Lucas R, Galvec A. Multiple roles of staphylococcal enterotoxins: pathogenicity, superantigenic activity and correlation to antibiotic resistance. Toxins (Basel). 2010;2(8):2117-2131.
Drug bank; 2014.
Accessed 28th May, 2014.
Gade ND, Qazi MS. Fluoroquinolone therapy in Staphylococcus aureus infections: where do we stand? Journal of Laboratory Physicians. 2013;5(2):109-112.
Asif, M. Antimicrobial and anti-tubercular activity of quinolone analogues. Science International. 2013;1(10):336-349.
Cheesbrough, M. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. Cambridge University Press. 2006;62.
Baron EJ. Classification. In: Baron S, editor. Medical Microbiology. 4th Ed. Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston; 1996.
Kloos WE, Wolfshohi JF. Identification of Staphylococcus Species with the API STAPH-IDENT System. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 1982;16(3):509-516.
Kloos WE, Schleifer KH. Simplified scheme for routine identification of human Staphylococcus species. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 1975;(1):82-88.
Garcia L. Broth Microdilution MIC Test. Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd Edition. 2010;25-41.
Andrews JM. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2001;48 (1):5-16.
Chavant P, Gaillard-Martinie B, Talon R, Hebraud M, Bernardi T. A new device for rapid evaluation of biofilm formation potential by bacteria. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 2007; 68:605–612.
Driessche FV, Rigole P, Brackman G, Coenye T. Optimization of resazurin-based viability staining for quantification of microbial biofilms. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 2014; 98:31–34.
Smith K, Perez A, Ramage G, Lappin D, Gemmell CG, Lang S. Biofilm formation by Scottish clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2008;57(8):1018-1023
Pereira V, Lopes C, Castro A, Silva J, Gibbs P, Teixeira P. Characterization for enterotoxin production, virulence factors, and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from various foods in Portugal. Food Microbiology. 2009;26(3):278-282.
Saha B, Singh AK, Ghosh A, Bal M. Identification and characterization of a vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Kolkata (South Asia). Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2008;57(1):72-79.
Boerlin P, Kuhnert P, Hüssy D, Schaellibaum M. Methods for Identification of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in Cases of Bovine Mastitis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2003;41(2):767-771.
Narmen SM, Jubrael JMS. Isolation and Identification of Staphylococus aureus using classical and molecular methods. Journal of Duhok University. 2009;12(1):10-16.
Tiwari HK, Sapkota D, Sen MR. Evaluation of different tests for detection of Staphylococcus aureus using coagulase (coa) gene PCR as the gold standard. Nepal Medical College Journal. 2008;10(2):129-131.
Szabados F, Woloszyn J, Richter C, Kaase M, Gatermann S. Identification of molecularly defined Staphylococcus aureus strains using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and the Biotyper 2.0 database. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2010;59(7):787-90.
Akobi B, Aboderin O, Sasaki T, Shittu A. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from faecal samples of the Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum) in Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Nigeria. BioMed Central Microbiology. 2012;12:279.
Gould FK, Denning DW, Elliott TSJ, Foweraker J, Perry JD, Prendergast BD, Sandoe JAT, Spry MJ, Watkin RW. Guidelines for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of endocarditis in adults: a report of the Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2012;67(2):269-89.
Kowalski RP, Pandya AN, Karenchak LM, Romanowski EG, Husted RC, Ritterband DC, et al. An in vitro resistance study of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin using keratitis isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ophthalmology. 2001;108(10):1826-1829.
Kedzierska A, Kapinska-Mrowiecka M, Czubak-Macugowska M, Wójcik K, Kedzierska J. Susceptibility Testing and Resistance Phenotype Detection in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Patients with Atopic Dermatitis, With Apparent and Recurrent Skin Colonization. The British Journal of Dermatology. 2008;159(6):1290-1299.
Liu G, Liang J, Wang X, Li Z, Wang W, Guo N. et al. In Vitro Synergy of Biochanin A and Ciprofloxacin against Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Molecules. 2011;16(8): 6656-6666.
Quillardet P, Hofnung M. The SOS chromotest: A review. Mutation Research. 1993; 297 (3): 235–279.
Abstract View: 175 times
PDF Download: 82 times