Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus Diarrhoea in Children under the Age of Five Years in FCT Abuja, Nigeria
International Journal of Pathogen Research,
Introduction: Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death among children, and Nigeria has the continent's highest mortality with little information on the specific cause, proportion affected by Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus, and the prevalent genotypes for Rotavirus.
Aim: To identify children with diarrhoea, in Abuja in the Federal Capital Territory; to estimate the proportion of children with Cryptosporidium and rotavirus diarrhoea.
Study Design: One-year cross-sectional study of children under five years with acute diarrhea.
Duration: The study was conducted in Abuja from June 2018 to May 2019.
Methodology: Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus ELISA were done with commercially available kits.
Results: Stool samples were collected from 1450 participants, of whom 1185 (81.7%) were ambulatory, 109 (7.5%) were hospitalized, and 156 (10.7%) were controls without diarrhoea. Cryptosporidium-ELISA was positive among 274 (21.1%) children with diarrhoea and 23 (1.7%) of children without diarrhoea, with August and September as peak months for infection. Rotavirus-ELISA was positive among 231 (17.8%) children with diarrhoea and 29 (2.2%) controls, with November, December, and January as peak months. Children of 12 to 17 months were most affected for both and Rotavirus (39.8%) and Cryptosporidium (37.2%).
Conclusion: Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus are essential pathogens in children, especially among Rotavirus unvaccinated children in Abuja. Local and national infrastructure is inadequate for essential surveillance of diarrhoeal disease, and this will have to be improved, together with access to virological and parasitic stool testing, to monitor the planned vaccine program, especially for Rotavirus.
How to Cite
Jamison DT. Disease and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, World Bank Publications;2006.
Dennehy PH. Transmission of Rotavirus and other enteric pathogens in the home. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2000;19:S103.
Mwenda JM, Ntoto KM, Abebe A, Enweronu-Laryea C, Amina I, Mchomvu J, Kisakye A, Mpabalwani EM, Pazvakavambwa I, Armah GE. Burden and epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhoea in selected African countries: preliminary results from the African Rotavirus Surveillance Network. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2010;202:S5-S11.
Ingrid B, Monika H, Veronika B, Zuzana K, Lenka C. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in children from minority group in Slovakia. J Infect Dis Ther. 2018;6.
Bryce, J., Boschi-Pinto, C., Shibuya, K. & Black, R. E.(2005). WHO estimates the causes of death in children. The Lancet, 365, 1147-1152.
UNICEF/WHO. Diarrhoea: Why children are still dying and what can be done. WHO Library Cataloging-in-Publication Data; 2009.
Kosek M, Bern C, Guerrant RL. The global burden of diarrhoeal disease, as estimated from studies published between 1992 and 2000. Bulletin-World Health Organization. 2003;81:197-204.
Victora CG, Bryce J, Fontaine O, Monasch R. Reducing deaths from diarrhoea through oral rehydration therapy. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2000;78:1246-1255.
Waggie Z, Hawkridge A, Hussey GD. Review of Rotavirus Studies in Africa: 1976–2006. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2010;202:S23.
Miller P, Hirschhorn N. The effect of a national control of diarrhoeal diseases program on mortality: the case of Egypt. Social Science & Medicine. 1995;40:S1-S30.
Boschi-Pinto C, Velebit L, Shibuya K. Estimating child mortality due to diarrhoea in developing countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2008;86:710-717.
Ologe K. Geography of Nigeria;2013.
Odekunle T. Rainfall and the length of the growing season in Nigeria. International Journal of Climatology. 2004;24:467-4 79.
Fagbami AH, Oyejide CO, Enahoro F. Neonatal rotavirus infection in urban and rural communities in Nigeria. Tropical and Geographical Medicine. 1987;39: 341-4.
Abiodun PO, Ihongbe JC, Ogbimi A. Asymptomatic rotavirus infection in Nigerian day-care centers. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics. 1985;5:163-5.
Paul MO, Erinle EA. Rotavirus infection in Nigerian infants and young children with gastroenteritis. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1982b;31:374-375.
Kuta F, Uba A, Nimzing L, Damisa D, Adabara N. Epidemiology and Molecular Identification of Rotavirus Strains Associated With Gastroenteritis in Children in Niger State. Nigerian Journal of Technological Research. 2013;8:68-71.
Aminu M, Ahmad AA, Umoh JU. Rotavirus infection in four states in north-western Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Medicine. 2008a;17:285-90.
Junaid SA, Umeh C, Olabode AO, Banda JM. Incidence of rotavirus infection in children with gastroenteritis attending Jos university teaching hospital, Nigeria. Virology Journal. 2011a;8: 21575246.
Iyoha O, Abiodun P. Human rotavirus genotypes causing acute watery diarrhoea among under-five children in Benin City, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. 2015;18:48-51.
Paul MO, Paul BD. Rotavirus infection among children in hospital in Nigeria. Journal of Infection. 1986;12:39-47.
Olusanya O, Taiwo O. Rotavirus is an aetiological agent of acute childhood diarrhoea in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. East African Medical Journal. 1989a;66:100-4.
Wada-Kura A. Molecular characterisation of rotaviruses detected in children under the age of five years with diarrhoea in Kano State-Nigeria. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2011 ;10(1):215-218
Audu R, Omilabu SA, Peenze I, Steele D. Viral diarrhoea in young children in two districts in Nigeria. Central African Journal of Medicine. 2002b;48:59-63.
Junaid SA, Umeh C, Olabode AO, Banda JM. Incidence of rotavirus infection in children with gastroenteritis attending Jos university teaching hospital, Nigeria. Virology Journal. 2011b;8:233.
Anochie PI, Onyeneke EC, Asowata EO, Afocha E, Onyeozirila AC, Ogu AC, Onyeneke BC. The role of Rotavirus associated with pediatric gastroenteritis in a general hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Germs. 2013;3:81.
Bar-Zeev N, Kapanda L, Tate JE, Jere KC, Iturriza-Gomara M, Nakagomi O, Mwansambo C, Costello A, Parashar UD, Heyderman RS. Effectiveness of a monovalent rotavirus vaccine in infants in Malawi after programmatic roll-out: an observational and case-control study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2015;15:422-428.
Armah G, Mingle J, Dodoo A, Anyanful A, Antwi R, Commey J, Nkrumah F. Seasonality of rotavirus infection in Ghana. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics. 1993;14:223-229.
Kwambana BA, Ikumapayi UN, Sallah N, Dione M, Jarju S, Panchalingham S, Jafali J, Lamin, M, Betts M, Adeyemi M. High genotypic diversity among Rotavirus strains infecting Gambian children. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2014;33:S69-S75.
Black RE, Allen LH, Bhutta ZA, Caulfield LE, De Onis M, Ezzati M, Mathers C, Rivera J. Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. The Lancet. 2008;371:243-260.
Chao DL, Roose A, Roh M, Kotloff KL, Proctor JL (2019). The seasonality of diarrheal pathogens: A retrospective study of seven sites over three years. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(8): e0007211. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pntd.0007211
Armah GE, Steele AD, Binka FN, Esona MD, Asmah RH, Anto F, Brown D, Green J, Cutts F, Hall A. Changing patterns of rotavirus genotypes in ghana: emergence of human rotavirus G9 as a major cause of diarrhoea in children. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2003;41:2317-22.
Ekejindu I, Ochuba G. Cryptosporidium infection among young children in Onitsha Urban Area in South-Eastern Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Medical Research. 2004;8:17-20
Levy K, Hubbard AE, Eisenberg JNS. Seasonality of rotavirus disease in the tropics: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2009;38:1487-1496.
Gomwalk N, Umoh U, Gosham L, Ahmad A. Influence of climatic factors on rotavirus infection among children with acute gastroenteritis in Zaria, northern Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 1993;39:293-297.
Wada-Kura A. Molecular characterisation of rotaviruses detected in children under the age of five years with diarrhoea in Kano State-Nigeria. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2011;10 (1):215-218.
[Accessed July 02 2014 2014].
O'ryan ML, Clemens R. Rotavirus vaccines roll-out in resource-deprived regions. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2015;15:368-370.
Abstract View: 171 times
PDF Download: 40 times