International Journal of Pathogen Research 2020-09-18T19:39:24+00:00 International Journal of Pathogen Research Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Pathogen Research (ISSN:&nbsp;2582-3876)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers related to all aspects of pathogens and pathogen-host interactions.&nbsp;The journal covers all pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions, parasites, and protozoa that infect humans or animals, the&nbsp;diagnosis, management, or treatment for pathogen-related diseases, the diseases that have important medical, agricultural, and economic consequences as well as environmental and public health implications. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Antifungal Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Cymbopogon citratus, Cajanus cajan and Plectranthus amboinicus Leaves Collected in Guyana, South America 2020-09-18T19:39:24+00:00 Denis Maldonado Gomathinayagam Subramanian Rajini Kurup Abdullah Adil Ansari <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Medicinal plants have been a fundamental part of the human health since existence. Guyana is surrounded high in the green shoulder of northern South America and shares Amazon River and Amazon Forest. South American population use plant extracts obtained from traditional medicinal plants as treatment for many infectious diseases. The study aimed to estimate antifungal property and chemical composition of the three medicinal plants <em>Cymbopogon citratus</em> (lemongrass), <em>Cajanus cajan</em> (pigeon pea) and <em>Plectranthus amboinicus</em> (thick leaf thyme) leaves collected from the coastal areas of Guyana.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Experiment based study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Plants were gathered along the East Coast of Guyana and identified at the Biodiversity Center, University of Guyana, Georgetown, Guyana between January 2017- May 2017.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Phytochemical extraction was conducted using the soxhlet and rotovap apparatus and an aqueous extraction method. Data analysis of the study was done using R-Studio Program for statistical computing and graphics. A Tukey test was done along with ANOVA and Boxplots.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals was carried out and the presence of terpenoids, steroids, glycoside, alkaloid, tannins and saponins were positive in some plants. Antifungal activity was tested using the poisoned food and well diffusion techniques.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In conclusion, <em>C. cajan</em> showed significant zones of inhibition using a well diffusion technique whereas hexane extract showed significant inhibition with poisoned food technique.</p> 2020-08-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Activities of Macrolides in Combination with Vitamin D against Bacillus cereus Isolated from Soil of a Lanfill Site in Nsukka South East Nigeria 2020-09-18T19:39:23+00:00 Ekwebelem C. Osmond Nnorom-Dike V. Obinna <p><strong>Background:</strong> The fast moving world of antibiotics resistance is now a big concern, since our antibiotics are in danger of extinction. This is a concern to us because; an empty ‘antibiotic pipeline’ leads to devastating future.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of this study was to isolate <em>Bacillus cereus</em> from soil contaminated with various toxic and domestic wastes and investigate its sensitivity to macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin ERY and azithromycin AZM) in combination with vitamin D supplement.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Five soil samples were collected from a landfill site and serially diluted up to 10<sup>ˉ6</sup>. <em>B. cereus </em>was isolated from the soil sample using Mannitol egg Yolk Polymyxin agar medium (MYP), a selective nutrient medium for <em>B. cereus</em> isolation. The sensitivity of <em>B. cereus </em>to erythromycin and azithromycin was screened in Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) containing varying concentrations (5, 10, 20 mg/ml) of vitamin D. Agar without vitamin D (0.00mg/ml) served as the control. The activities of ERY and AZM in combination with vitamin D were determined by measuring the zones of inhibition.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong><em>In vitro </em>antibiotic susceptibility tests on our isolate showed maximum sensitivity to ERY and maximum resistance to AZM with 0.00 mg/ml (no combination) of vitamin D. Contrarily, ERY was found to be least active, with the zones of inhibitions decreasing from 28mm to 16mm, with increasing concentration of vitamin D. On the other hand, AZM achieved maximum sensitivity from 12mm to 25mm, with increasing concentration of vitamin D.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The activities appeared to be important but dose-dependent. So, the systematic use of Vitamin D in combination with macrolide antibiotics may be efficient in treating food and soil infections caused <em>B. cereus. </em>However, <em>in vivo</em> evaluation of these activities is needed.</p> 2020-08-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of the Correlation between Biofilm Formation and Drug Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii 2020-09-18T19:39:23+00:00 Berrin Celik <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The aim of this study was to determine correlation between biofilm formation and drug resistance in clinical isolates of <em>Acinetobacter baumannii.</em></p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Bacteriological study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Laboratory of Microbiology of BilecikSeyhEdebali University, in Turkey, between April 2019 and November 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Antibiotic susceptibility of the strains were determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method in accordance with the principles of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Biofilm presence in <em>A. baumannii</em>was identified by the quantitative method. the isolates were incubated in nutrient agar and was prepared from fresh cultures in tubes containing glucose-Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. The <em>A. baumannii</em>(ATCC 19606) type strain was used for comparisons.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In this study was determined the relationship between the biofilm production capacity of the <em>A. baumannii</em>bacteria and its antimicrobial resistance. According to the results obtained from our study, the highest resistance rate (%) was found ceftazidime and piperacillin (95 %) while the highest sensitivity was found colistin (96.6 %) and tigecycline (86.6 %) of the total 60 <em>Acinetobacter baumannii </em>isolates. In addition, the presence of biofilm in the bacteria was defined by quantitative method using microplate. In this study, biofilm was positive in 54 (90 %) isolates and it has been found 51 (85%) of the biofilm positive isolates to be resistant to piperacillin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime and meropenem.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> As a result, there is a positive relationship between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in thesebacteria.</p> 2020-08-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bioaerosol Assessment of Selected Offices within a Polytechnic 2020-09-18T19:39:22+00:00 A. Asifamabia Dick C. Wekhe <p><strong>Aim: </strong>Microorganisms are ubiquitous in the built environment and their presence has been documented to have adverse effect on the users of such buildings. This study was conducted to assess the Bioaerosol concentrations of selected offices.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:&nbsp; </strong>A random sampling technique was adopted to select the eight (8) offices for the study based on accessibility and visitation.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>The study was carried out in selected offices within Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, Rumuola, Port Harcourt.<strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology:&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>Sedimentation technique was employed for the assessment involving Nutrient Agar, Mac Conkey Agar and Potato Dextrose Agar. The analysis was replicated thrice for both morning and afternoon sessions</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results reveal that the mean total heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged from 5.85 x 10<sup>3</sup>cfu/m<sup>3</sup> (SUG Office) to 3.80 x 10<sup>4 </sup>cfu/m<sup>3</sup> (Lecturer Office 2) for the morning session while the afternoon session ranged from 1.13 x 10<sup>4 </sup>cfu/m<sup>3</sup> (SUG Office) to 6.54 x 10<sup>4 </sup>cfu/m<sup>3</sup> (Lecturer Office 2). The mean total coliform counts for the morning session ranged from 1.17 x 10<sup>4 </sup>cfu/m<sup>3</sup> (ICE Office) to 4.07 x 10<sup>4 </sup>cfu/m<sup>3</sup> (Lecturer Office 2) while the afternoon session ranged from 7.87 x 10<sup>3 </sup>cfu/m<sup>3</sup> (Admission Office) to 2.40 x 10<sup>4 </sup>cfu/m<sup>3</sup> (DSA Office). The mean total fungal counts ranged from 1.24 x 10<sup>4 </sup>cfu/m<sup>3</sup> (DSA Office) to 3.91 x 10<sup>4 </sup>cfu/m<sup>3</sup> (CSO Office) for the morning session while the afternoon session ranged from 8.87 x 10<sup>3 </sup>cfu/m<sup>3</sup> (CSO office) to 5.13 x 10<sup>4 </sup>cfu/m<sup>3</sup> (Lecturer Office 2).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This shows that the selected offices in Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic are being affected by the airborne bacteria and fungi higher than the recommended limit of 10<sup>3</sup> cfu/m<sup>3</sup>. This can result in health challenges of the staff and students thereby reducing productivity, hence a need to control factors that increase the presence of bioaerosols and ensure good sanitary practices in offices.</p> 2020-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Characterization of Phytophthora infestans Isolates from Two Potato Varieties in the Highlands Agro-Ecological Zone of Cameroon 2020-09-18T19:39:21+00:00 Sylvere Landry Dida Lontsi Alain Heu Joseph Djeugap Fovo William Norbert Kuate Tueguem Mbatkam Biamen Fabrice Christian Gbaporo Gbaporo Zachee Ambang <p><strong>Background:</strong> Late blight caused by Oomycete <em>Phytophthora infestans</em> remains a huge problem in potato production and one of the most severe crop diseases worldwide. In Cameroon, the populations characterization of this pathogen remain very little known.</p> <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study aims to characterize isolates of <em>P. infestans</em> collected in twelve localities of Highlands zone of Cameroon.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Twelve localities in three main potato production areas of the Highlands agro-ecological zone (HAZ) in Cameroon were selected for sample collection. The phenotypic parameters of sporangia were measured. The presence of mating types and pathogenicity tests on detached leaflets of two potato varieties (<em>MANATE</em> and <em>CIPIRA</em>) were assessed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 36 isolates were collected. Height (08) Sporangia shape of <em>P. infestans </em>were obtain and 02 new different shape were pip form and oval to ellipsoid. Sporangia length/width ratio ranged from 1.62 to 2.18. Mating types A1 and A2 were present in the studied areas. Pathogenicity test on detached potato leaflets was positive with all the 36 isolates. The isolate HPBT02 from Tsela locality was more aggressive (P&lt;0.05). <em>MANATE</em> variety was more susceptible.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study shows that mating types A1 and A2 of <em>P. infestans</em> exit in Cameroon and the morphology of sporangia varies according to the localities. Molecular characterization is needed.</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##