International Journal of Pathogen Research https://journalijpr.com/index.php/IJPR <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Pathogen Research (ISSN:&nbsp;2582-3876)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers related to all aspects of pathogens and pathogen-host interactions.&nbsp;The journal covers all pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions, parasites, and protozoa that infect humans or animals, the&nbsp;diagnosis, management, or treatment for pathogen-related diseases, the diseases that have important medical, agricultural, and economic consequences as well as environmental and public health implications. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> International Journal of Pathogen Research en-US International Journal of Pathogen Research 2582-3876 Evaluating the Neuroprotective Effects of the Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina on the Hippocampus of Adult Male Wistar Rats https://journalijpr.com/index.php/IJPR/article/view/30127 <p>The phytochemical yield of a plant material is related directly to the method as well as solvent of extraction. Lots of African herbs have proven over time to be highly medicinal both for the prevention, management and cure of various ailments. The aim of this research is to compare the neuroprotective potency of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em> on the hippocampus of mercury chloride intoxicated Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats weighing between 180 to 200 g were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each. Group A was the negative control and had food and water only. Groups B was the positive control and groups C1, C2, D1 and D2 were the test groups. Rats in group B to D2 were exposed to 0.5 mg/kg/b.w of mercury chloride two times a week for 2 weeks. Groups C1 and C2 were treated with 200 mg/kg/bw of aqueous and methanolic extracts respectively while groups D1 and D2 received 400 mg/kg/bw of aqueous and methanolic extracts of <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em> respectively. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis shows that water extracted more flavonoids while methanol extracted more phenols from the plant. The results of antioxidant studies show that the methanolic extract conferred more protection against oxidative stress than the aqueous extract. Neurobehavioural and histological results show that aqueous extract conferred more protection on the cells and tissue structure of the hippocampus than the methanolic extract. We therefore conclude that both the aqueous and methanolic extracts of <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em> confer some form of neuroprotection on the hippocampus of Wistar rats but the aqueous extract gave better results.</p> U. S. Aguwa D. K. Ogbuokiri C. S. Eze B. N. Obinwa F. O. Ovie K. C. Obi S. F. Onwuelingo D. I. Okonkwo I. J. Obiesie A. E. Agulanna A. J. Umezulike ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-21 2020-09-21 1 16 10.9734/ijpr/2020/v5i230127 Assessing Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) Leaf Blight Incidence, Severity, and Farmers’ Knowledge of the Disease in Fako Division of Cameroon https://journalijpr.com/index.php/IJPR/article/view/30128 <p>Taro leaf blight (TLB), a major disease of taro plant caused by <em>Phytophthora colocasiae</em>, a pseudo-fungus, that occurs in many taro producing areas, especially in the South West of Cameroon. A Survey was conducted to assess farmers’ knowledge, as well as to determine the incidence and the severity of the disease in taro fields. Structured questionnaires were administered in selected locations (Bokova, Ekona, Muea, Mile 16, Mutengene, and Likomba) of taro production. Two farms were selected with two quadrats of 64 m<sup>2 </sup>each were carved to assess disease incidence and severity on taro. The number of plants infected with taro leaf blight were counted and the area of the affected leaves measured was used to evaluate the disease incidence and disease severity. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA for complete randomized design and the means were compared using Tukey test at 0.05 probability levels. The results revealed that most of the farmers could identify the disease while practicing cultural methods in controlling the disease. The results also revealed significant differences (<em>p</em> = 0.001) in disease incidence and disease severity in all the localities, with Mile 16 showing the highest percentage mean of 96.53% and 85.59%, respectively. The severity scored showed high infection range of 3 – 3.95 in all locations except in Likomba (2.60).&nbsp; It could be concluded from the results that there were high prevalence of taro leaf blight disease in Fako Division. Good management strategies are therefore required to control Taro leaf blight and improve taro production in the area.</p> Mandah Cicelia Takor Ekwa Yawa Monono Ojong Agbor Ntane Jemimah Evenye Ngale Lum A. Fontem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-21 2020-09-21 17 29 10.9734/ijpr/2020/v5i230128 Model Selection in Describing Disease Progress Curve of Fusarium Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum F.SP. Sesami) Disease in Sesame Varieties https://journalijpr.com/index.php/IJPR/article/view/30129 <p>An epidemic of disease is the progress of the disease in time and space. The objectives of the present study are to understand and compare the four nonlinear models for disease progress curves of five sesame varieties. The regression parameters estimation, standard error, R-square, Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) were estimated. The lowest values of standard error and the highest values of R-square were calculated from the monomolecular model. Also, the result showed that; the disease progress curve better fitted within the monomolecular model for each varieties with the smallest AIC and BIC values. This model is appropriate for modelling epidemics where there is a monocycle within a growing season. The Monomolecular model allows the estimation of the disease progression rate and an area under the disease progress curve was carried out to know the level of reaction to the disease. The lowest rate of fusarium wilt disease was recorded from Hirhir followed by Setit-2. However, the highest value was recorded from Setit-3 followed by Setit-1. A highest value of area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) was calculated from Setit-3. However, the lowest was calculated from Hirhir. Varieties with low disease incidence could be useful in breeding programs aimed at developing varieties with higher resistance to Fusarium wilt disease.</p> Assefa Abadi Kebede Weres Negash Golla ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-22 2020-09-22 30 38 10.9734/ijpr/2020/v5i230129 Deterioration Profile of Postharvest Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulbs Induced by Potential Pathogenic Microorganisms https://journalijpr.com/index.php/IJPR/article/view/30130 <p>Onion (<em>Allium cepa</em> L.) is a highly nutritive vegetable with about 2 million metric tons grown annually in Nigeria, but the majority is lost to postharvest spoilage, especially through microbial infection. In this study, we identified bacteria and fungi associated with postharvest spoilage in onion bulbs and determined the pathogenicity of the bacterial isolates. Two weeks stored onion bulbs were purchased at a market in Ile-Ife, rinsed in 5% HOCL and aseptically cut into seven sections each. The fourteen sections obtained were swabbed daily with sterile cotton-tipped applicators for seven days. The swabs were streaked onto the surface of Nutrient Agar (NA) and selective/differential media plates for the isolation of bacteria, and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) plates for the cultivation of fungi. The bacterial plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours, while the fungal plates were incubated at 25°C for 5 days. The isolates were identified based on standard microbiological methods. Pathogenicity tests of the bacterial isolates from each of the genera was carried out by re-inoculation on the inner tissues of fresh onion bulbs that have been cleaned with 1% NaOCL, an uninoculated onion bulb served as the control. Thirty-five (35) bacterial isolates belonging to four different genera were identified, which included; 11 (31.4%) <em>Staphylococcus </em>spp., 9 (25.7%) <em>Micrococcus </em>spp., 8 (22.9%) <em>Bacillus </em>spp. and 7 (20%) <em>Flavobacterium </em>spp. Seven (7) fungal isolates were identified which included; 5 (71.4%) <em>Aspergillus fumigatus, </em>1 (14.3%)<em> Gibellula suffulta</em> and 1 (14.3%) <em>Hirsutella saussueri. </em>Pathogenicity tests revealed that all the bacterial isolates were able to cause rot in onion in comparison with the control which had no observable rot; <em>Flavobacterium </em>spp. (28 mm) was the most pathogenic, while <em>Micrococcus </em>spp. was the least pathogenic (14 mm) based on the diameter of rot formation within seven days. These findings revealed that spoilage microorganisms can cause onion rot, hence, onions already showing contamination symptoms should be separated from fresh ones to avoid cross-contamination, while adequate care should be taken before consumption of onion to avoid foodborne illnesses and diseases.</p> Nkem Torimiro Ifeoluwa Oluwabusola Makinde Richard Kolade Omole Oluwafemi Bamidele Daramola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-24 2020-09-24 39 45 10.9734/ijpr/2020/v5i230130