International Journal of Pathogen Research <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Pathogen Research (ISSN:&nbsp;2582-3876)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers related to all aspects of pathogens and pathogen-host interactions.&nbsp;The journal covers all pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions, parasites, and protozoa that infect humans or animals, the&nbsp;diagnosis, management, or treatment for pathogen-related diseases, the diseases that have important medical, agricultural, and economic consequences as well as environmental and public health implications. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> International Journal of Pathogen Research en-US International Journal of Pathogen Research 2582-3876 In vitro, In vivo and In situ, Effect of Mancozeb 80 WP on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. and Sacc., Causative Agent of Anthracnose of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in Chad and Cameroon <p><strong>Aims</strong>: The aim of this work was to evaluate effect of Mancozeb 80 WP against <em>Colletotrichum gloeosporioides</em>, the agent responsible of anthracnose of cashew tree (<em>Anacardium occidentale</em> &nbsp;L.).</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The experimental design was in completely randomized blocks with three replications.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong><em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> experiments were performed in Laboratory of&nbsp; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maroua during six months. Field trial was carried out in Kelo, Chad during three months.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Isolates were obtained from diseased organs (leaves and fruits) from Kélo in Chad and Maroua in Cameroon. The concentrations used in the laboratory were C<sub>1</sub> (5 mg/ml), C<sub>2 </sub>(0.5 mg/ml), C<sub>3</sub> (0.05 mg/ml), C<sub>4</sub> (0.005 mg/ml), C<sub>5</sub> (0.0 mg/ml). Radial growth, sporulation, conidial germination and pathogenicity were used to characterize and evaluate the effect of Mancozeb on the isolates <em>in</em> <em>vitro</em>. The preventive test was performed on three-month-old plants previously treated with Mancozeb. The concentration of 5 g/l was applied to the field and the incidence and severity were used to calculate the AUIPC (Area Under Disease Incidence Progress Curve) and AUSiPC (Area Under Disease Severity Index Progress Curve) curves.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Mancozeb reduced radial growth of all isolates at concentrations C<sub>1</sub> (5 mg/ml), C<sub>2 </sub>(0.5 mg/ml) and C<sub>3</sub> (0.05 mg/ml). The percentages of inhibition ranged from 50 to 100%. Mancozeb 80 WP completely (100%) inhibited the germination of <em>C. gloeosporioides</em> conidia <em>in vitro</em>. Mancozeb has protected cashew plants <em>in vivo</em> at the concentration C<sub>1</sub> (5 mg/ml). AUIPC and AUSiPC were higher on control plants and lower on Mancozeb-treated plants.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Mancozeb 80 WP may be associated in integrated pest management strategy against anthracnose.</p> Ngoh Dooh Jules Patrice Deurnaye Placide Abdoul Madjerembe Mbou T. Pavel Rony Djongnang Gabriel Boydoul F. Ulrich Djile Bouba Ambang Zachee ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-15 2021-03-15 1 14 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i330161 Determinants of Water-funded Projects in Mitigating Water Risks in Vihiga County, Kenya <p>Currently, 85 per cent of the world’s human&nbsp; population lives in the drier half of the Earth, which exacerbates the water risks including lack of access to safe water, poor basic sanitation and water-related disasters and diseases. Vihiga County is located in the western region of Kenya (former western province). The county covers a total area of 531.0 Km<sup>2</sup>. This paper examines the impact of water related risks on the livelihood of residents in Vihiga County. The study used evaluation research design. A sample size of 384 households was used to obtain data from the households. Sampling technique comprised of multistage sampling for the households, Quota sampling for the Focus Group Discussions and purposive sampling for the Key Informants. Primary data was gathered by use of questionnaires, Key Informant Interview guides, observation checklists and Focus Group Discussions. Secondary data was collected by use of publications, journals, and internet access. Quantitative data was analysed using Microsoft excel, and Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 20.0. Results reveal that majority of the household respondents had experienced different forms of water related risks including, water pollution at 42%, inadequate water infrastructure 32%, poor water governance 10%, water scarcity 7% and environmental flows at 4% respectively. The study established that the existing Water Funded Projects (WFPs) initiatives include protected water springs at 31%, water kiosks 21%, boreholes at 18%, open wells 14 %, rain water harvesting at 12% while 4% of household respondents had piped water. The results (X<sup>2</sup><sub>5, 0.05</sub>=69.76; p-value=0.000) indicating that Water Funded Projects (WFPs) initiatives have positively influenced reduction in water related risks.</p> James M. Oketch Edward M. Mugalavai Nicodemus O. Nyandiko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-16 2021-03-16 15 26 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i330162 Assessment of Microbial Load in Water and Sediments of Rivers Otamiri and Nworie in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria <p>Water pollution is a global problem. The study was carried out to assess the microbial constituents in water and sediment of Rivers Otamiri and Nworie during dry and rainy seasons (March and September, 2020) with comparison to WHO benchmark for drinking water .Samples were randomly collected at six (6) sampling points and analyzed using routine microbiological protocols.&nbsp; The results revealed detectable amount of microbial activates in surface water of both rivers during the dry and rainy season. During the rainy season, a THB bioload average of 2.02x10<sup>4</sup> and 5.1x10<sup>4</sup>CFU/mL for Nworie and Otamiri river respectively were measured. For the TCC, the average was 9.8x10<sup>3</sup> and 2.5x10<sup>4</sup> CFU/mL, while in the dry period there was corresponding reduction in the bioload value for both rivers. THB average value for Nworie river was 1.34x10<sup>4</sup> CFU/mL, with corresponding 3.5x10<sup>4</sup> values for Otamiri river, while in same inclination, TCC measured 6.1x10<sup>3</sup> and 1.8x10<sup>4</sup> CFU/mL. There were noteworthy variations in the values for the two rivers as well as in the two seasons. TBC value for Otamiri measured about 1.5 folds than the value for Nworie. In same trend, TCC value for Nworie measured about 39%. All values measured were above WHO permissible limit for drinking water. The biochemical and cultural features of the isolated microorganism in water showed the presence of <em>E. coli</em> identified in the entire stations (100%), <em>Salmonella</em> and faecal coliform occurred 83.3% each, while <em>Vibrio</em> and <em>Shigella</em> were detected in 4 of the 6 stations. The mean total bacterial count, total coliform count and total <em>E. coli</em>, were not in conformity with World Health Organization (WHO) Standard for drinking water and thus constitute a threat to the River; these were attributed to indiscriminate waste dumps around the rivers. The study underscores the need for adequate waste management system to forestall outbreak of pathogenic diseases in the area.</p> Okere J. Kelechi Azorji J. Nnawuike Iheagwam S. Kelechi Emeka J. Emmanuel Nzenwa P. Odinaka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 27 39 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i330163 Transmission Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2(COVID-19) with Vaccine Preventive Measures among Nigerian Populace Using Mathematical Modeling <p>SARS-CoV-2(COVID-19) is a very infectious symptomatic and asymptomatic infection caused by</p> <p>Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus 2 (SAR-COV-2). COVID-19 is caused by the</p> <p>SARS-CoV-2 virus, which spreads between people, mainly when an infected person is in close</p> <p>contact with another uninfected person. In this research work, a mathematical model for the novel COVID 19 viral infectious disease which is ravaging the world today including Nigeria was considered.. The mathematical model consists of four different compartments namely, susceptible, infected, vaccine and recovered under convex incident rate. The formulation of the mathematical model and some qualitative aspects for the model including the basic reproductive number of the model, existence of equilibria and its stability results by using various tools of nonlinear analysis were done. On the basis of simulations using Matlab Software package. Dynamical behaviour were observed in the mathematical model due to the vaccine of susceptible and infected individuals or one of those two classes of individuals. The x – rays features of this paper is to formulate and analyse a mathematical model that extends and complements the ones in the literature by incorporating the vaccination class denoted by V(t). Mathematical models are widely used to examine, explain, and state the relevance of the use of vaccines to prevent the spread of the dynamics of infectious diseases (COVID 19) transmission among the Nigerian populace.</p> Oludare Temitope Osuntokun Adeyemi. O. Binuyo Muhammad Akram Gamberini Maria Cristina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-06 2021-03-06 40 51 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i330164