International Journal of Pathogen Research https://journalijpr.com/index.php/IJPR <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Pathogen Research (ISSN:&nbsp;2582-3876)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers related to all aspects of pathogens and pathogen-host interactions.&nbsp;The journal covers all pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions, parasites, and protozoa that infect humans or animals, the&nbsp;diagnosis, management, or treatment for pathogen-related diseases, the diseases that have important medical, agricultural, and economic consequences as well as environmental and public health implications. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> International Journal of Pathogen Research en-US International Journal of Pathogen Research 2582-3876 Ocimum Species as Potential Bioresources against COVID-19: A Review of Their Phytochemistry and Antiviral Activity https://journalijpr.com/index.php/IJPR/article/view/30143 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this work was to review literature data reported on some species of the <em>Ocimum </em>genus regarding their phytochemistry and antiviral potential in order to show how <em>Ocimum</em> species might be used in the management of COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Various databases like PubMed, PubMed Central., Science Direct, SCIELO, DOAJ, Science alert, Semantic scholar and Google scholar were used.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Essential oils and extracts of <em>Ocimum</em> species possess the compounds involved in antiviral activity. In addition, this plant contains certain nutrients which boost the immune system. <em>Ocimum</em> genus displayed antiviral activity against several viruses like Herpes Simplex Virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus, Adenovirus, Enterovirus 71, Parainfluenza virus type 3, Hepatitis C virus, etc. Toxicological data indicated that these plants are safe.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Till now, there is no effective treatment of COVID-19. Ethnopharmacology constitutes an alternative approach for the discovery of effective antiviral drugs. The literature survey reveals that <em>Ocimum</em> species exhibit high antiviral activity, and thus can be used as potential bioresources against COVID-19. Molecular docking study of the interaction of some compounds derived from <em>Ocimum</em> species with SARS-CoV-2 protease is in progress in order to identify the potential inhibitors of the virus.</p> Dorothée D. Tshilanda Etienne M. Ngoyi Carlos N. Kabengele Aristote Matondo Gedeon N. Bongo Clement L. Inkoto Clement M. Mbadiko Benjamin Z. Gbolo Emmanuel M. Lengbiye Jason T. Kilembe Domaine T. Mwanangombo Giresse N. Kasiama Damien S. T. Tshibangu Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua Pius T. Mpiana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-27 2020-11-27 42 54 10.9734/ijpr/2020/v5i430143 Antifungal Activity on the Strain of Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phytochemical Study of Ageratum conyzoides and Newbouldia laevis from the Kisangani Region / DR Congo https://journalijpr.com/index.php/IJPR/article/view/30138 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> To extract, identify and evaluate <em>in vitro </em>the antifungal activity of the phytochemical groups of <em>Ageratum conyzoides </em>and <em>Newbouldia laevis </em>on the strain of <em>Lasiodiplodia theobromae</em>.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Exploitation of medicinal plants to combat the growth of <em>L. theobromae</em>, responsible for the decline of cocoa cultivation.</p> <p><strong>Location and Duration of Studies: </strong>Faculty of Sciences, University of Kisangani, between April 2017 and February 2018.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The crude extracts of the dry leaves of <em>A. conyzoides </em>and <em>N. laevis</em> were tested (at 100 mg/mL). Potato dextrose agar was used as the culture medium. After chemical screening, abundant phytochemical groups were isolated and tested.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The aqueous, 95% ethanolic and ethereal crude extracts of <em>A. conyzoides </em>are more antifungal (respective percentages of inhibition PI: 80.74; 84.10 and 85.64%) than those of <em>N. laevis</em> (63.28; 72.64 and 75.23%). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the aqueous crude extract of <em>A. conyzoides </em>is lower (25 mg/mL) than that of the ethanolic extract (50 mg/mL). Tannins are very abundant in <em>A. conyzoides </em>and in <em>N. laevis</em>. Saponins, sterols and terpenes are abundant in both plants. The extraction yields of tannins and saponins are respectively 20.67 and 2.43% in <em>A. conyzoides </em>and 10.47 and 2.38% in <em>N. laevis</em>. <em>A. conyzoides </em>contains the gallic tannins while <em>N. laevis</em>, the condensates and catechics. The saponins and tannins of <em>A. conyzoides </em>are more antifungal (respective PI: 84.40 and 54.44%) than those of <em>N. laevis</em> (PI: 75.56 and 32.96%).</p> <p><strong>Discussion: </strong>The saponins of <em>A. conyzoides</em> and <em>N. laevis</em> are more active on the strain of <em>L. theobromae</em> than the tannins. Saponins are surfactants that can destabilize membrane structure of microorganisms including fungi.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The saponins of the two plants have shown a very interesting antifungal power on the strain of <em>L. theobromae</em>. The identification of their active molecules is ongoing.</p> J. T. K. Kwembe J. P. Mbula O. Onautshu P. T. Mpiana G. Haesaert ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 1 10 10.9734/ijpr/2020/v5i430138 Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Gongronema latifolium and Costus afer Leaf Extracts on E. coli (ATCC 29455) and S. aureus (ATCC 25923) https://journalijpr.com/index.php/IJPR/article/view/30139 <p>Man’s use of medicinal plants in treating illnesses is as old as human existence and many plants have been used for this purpose because of their phytochemical constituents that prove many times to be antimicrobial. The antibacterial activity of the leaf extract of <em>Gongronema latifolium</em> and <em>Costus afer</em> on <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (ATCC 25923) and <em>Escherichia coli</em> (ATCC 25923) was investigated using standard microbiological procedures of sub-culturing, identity confirmation, water and ethanol extraction of leaves and sensitivity testing via agar well diffusion method. Results revealed that <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>E. coli</em> were both inhibited by the aqueous extract of <em>C. afer</em> with zone diameter of 16 mm and 15 mm respectively as well as the ethanolic extract of <em>C. afer</em> with diameter of 18mm and 15 mm respectively. However, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of <em>G. latifolium</em> proved ineffective against the strains of <em>E. coli</em> and <em>S. aureus</em> used in this study. Results of minimum inhibitory concentration revealed MIC of the aqueous extract of <em>C. afer</em> on <em>E. coli</em> and <em>S. aureus</em> to be 50 mgml<sup>-1</sup> and 25 mgml<sup>-1</sup> respectively while that of the ethanolic extracts of <em>C. afer</em> was 12.5 mgml<sup>-1</sup> and 6.25 mgml<sup>-1</sup> for <em>E. coli</em> and <em>S. aureus</em> respectively. Comparatively <em>E. coli</em> showed high sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamycin and Septrin with zones of inhibition of 37, 32 and 24 respectively and resistant to Ampicillin, Erythromycin and Tetracycline with zones of inhibition of 6, 0 and 0 respectively. <em>S. aureus</em> on the other hand proved sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin, Gentamycin and Tetracycline with zones of inhibition of 35, 28, 29 and 34 respectively and resistant to Ampicillin and Septrin with zones of inhibition of o respectively. This study has revealed that some positive effect can be achieved against <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>E. coli</em> infections using <em>C. afer</em> at good concentrations. Better results could also be achieved using ethanol as extracting medium with instead of water as is common practice.</p> N. P. Akani C. Nwachukwu I. O. Hakam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 11 16 10.9734/ijpr/2020/v5i430139 Malaria and Typhoid Fever: Prevalence, Co-Infection and Socio-Demographic Determinants among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at a Primary Healthcare Facility in Central Nigeria https://journalijpr.com/index.php/IJPR/article/view/30140 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence, co-infection and socio-demographic determinants of malaria and typhoid fever among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a primary health care facility in Central Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>The study was a cross sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Keffi, Nasarawa State, between January and October, 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Blood sample (4 ml) was collected from each of the 429 consenting pregnant women attending antenatal care at Primary Healthcare Centre main market, Keffi, Nasarawa State. Malaria parasite was detected from the blood samples using one-step malaria rapid diagnostic test kit (SD Bioline, Inc, USA) and was confirmed by Gimesa stained thin and thick film microscopy while typhoid fever was diagnosed using Cromatest widal commercial antigen suspension (Linear Chemicals, Barcelona, Spain). Data collected were analysed using Smith’s Statistical Package (version 2.8, California, USA) and <em>P</em> value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Of the 429 pregnant women screened, 123(28.7%) had malaria, 33(7.7%) had typhoid fever while 12(2.8%) had malaria-typhoid co-infection. Malaria-typhoid co-infection was found to be higher among pregnant women aged ≤30 years (3.5%), traders (3.9%), with primary education (3.2%) and who were from rural areas (6.3%). However, only location of the pregnant women was associated with the rate of malaria-typhoid co-infection (<em>P</em>&lt; 0.05) whereas age, educational status and occupation were independent of the co-infection (<em>P</em>&gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We confirmed the presence of malaria-typhoid co-infection among pregnant women in the study area. Considering it adverse effects on pregnancy and it outcome, there is need for more efforts towards it prevention, control and management.</p> Haruna Isa Mohammed Idris Muhammad Mukhtar Hussaini Abubakar Sadiq ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-24 2020-11-24 17 24 10.9734/ijpr/2020/v5i430140 Different Morphotypes of Fusarium oxysporum Isolated from Xanthosoma sagittifolium L. Schott Roots: Action of Ethanol Leaf Extracts of Psidium guajava on their in Vitro Inhibition and on X. Sagittifolium Plants Inoculated with F. oxysporum https://journalijpr.com/index.php/IJPR/article/view/30142 <p>The objective of this study was to determine the different morphotypes of <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> present in the root of <em>Xanthosoma sagittifolium</em> and evaluate the effect of alcoholic extracts of <em>Psidium guajava</em> on their <em>in vitro</em> inhibition. Strains of <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> were collected in eight localities where <em>X. sagittifolium</em> is grown. <em>Fusarium</em> strains isolated from roots of <em>X. sagittifolium</em> harvested in each locality were grown on PDA medium. The antifungal test was evaluated using ethanol extracts from <em>P. guajava</em> leaves at 30 and 60%. The virulence test of each strain on young plants of <em>X. sagittifolium</em> aged three months were realized. Eight strain of <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> were successfully isolated. After maximum growth, five morphological types were observed (pionnotal, sclerotic, clowny, cottony and ras senescent). The cottony strain was abundant and present in all the locality. Histological analysis of the different strains obtained revealed the presence of septate or siphoned hyphae and three types of conidia (microconidia, macroconidia and sporangiospores or chlamidospores). The inhibition tests were very high with 60% of ethanol extract of <em>P. guajava</em>, and 83.33% of inhibitory effect were observed after eight days of growth, in the strains collected in <em>X. sagittifolium</em> roots, in L<sub>3</sub> (Loum) and L<sub>4</sub> (Bangoua) localities. After infection of <em>X. sagittifolium</em> plants with each strain of <em>F. oxysporum</em> isolated, symptoms observed were yellowing and wilting of leaves. However, plants inoculated with the L<sub>3</sub> (Loum) strain showed both yellowing and wilting of leaves. The application of ethanol extracts from <em>P. guajava</em> leaves reduced the severity of the disease in the inoculated plants after 14 days. These results obtained showed that <em>F. oxysporum</em> is not only saprophytic fungi, it’s also able to induce yellowing and wilting of leaves in <em>X. sagittifolium</em>.</p> A. C. Djeuani H. D. Mbouobda T. A. Mbekem N. Niemenak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-27 2020-11-27 25 41 10.9734/ijpr/2020/v5i430142