Open Access Original Research Article

Spécies Diversity and Physiological Characterization of Fusarium spp. Isolates Causing Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Fusariosis (Far-North, Cameroon)

Boydoul Fréderic Ulrich, Sobda Gonné, Fankou Dougouan Merline Yoyo, Abdoul Madjerembe, Rapmo Kononer Serge, Eloa Seussemaga, Metsena Pierre, Ngoh Dooh Jules Patrice, Philippe Kosma

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Volume 12, Issue 1, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2023/v12i1215

Introduction: Potato production in the Far North Region, Cameroon is hampered by a wide range of fungi of the genus Fusarium.

Aims: The aim of this work was to isolate and conduct physiological characterization of Fusarium spp. isolates responsible for potato Fusarium disease in the Far North Region, Cameroon.

Methodology: Isolates were obtained from diseased organs (leaves) from fifteen villages in the district of Mogodé, Mokolo and Koza, Far North Cameroon. The species responsible for fusariosis were identified using several identification Keys on a base of symptoms and morphological spores characteristics (macroconidia, microconidia and chlamydospores). Fusarium incidence and rainfall were assessed. Radial growth, sporulation and pathogenicity of the isolates were use to evaluated the parameters of physiological characterization.

 Results: The overall average incidence of Fusarium head blight in the Far North Region, Cameroon is 29.36%. Furthermore, out of the 20 isolates obtained, six Fusarium species (Fusarium oxysporium, F. solani, F. equiseti, F. avenacearum, F. colmorum and F. sambicum) were identified. The highest growth rate (8.1 cm), the highest spore production (8 × 105) and the highest severity index (3%) were respectively obtained with the isolates FUROM 2 and FUTEK 3, FUMOG 1, FUMOG 2, FUROM 1 and FURAF from Mogodé District on PCA medium.

Conclusion: Potato production in the Far North Region, Cameroon is confronted by various Fusarium species which have physiological characteristics that vary according to the area of origin of the isolates and the growing media.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cryptosporidiosis and Associated Risk Factors among Children Attending Paediatric Hospitals in Enugu Metropolis, Enugu State, Nigeria

Ezinne G. Ani , Pauline U. Umeanaeto , Kindness C. Irikannu , Anthea U. Ikpo

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Volume 12, Issue 1, Page 13-20
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2023/v12i1216

Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with protozoan parasite of the genus Cryptosporidium. It is associated with moderate to severe diarrhoea which may eventually lead to death. The parasite impedes growth and development of affected children. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess cryptosporidiosis and the associated risk factors among children aged 0-15years attending selected paediatric hospitals in Enugu Metropolis between November 2021 and August 2022. A total of five hundred and fifty stool samples were examined for oocysts of Cryptosporidium species using Formol Ethyl-Acetate sedimentation and modified Ziehl Neelsen’s staining techniques. The overall prevalence of the parasite was 14.4% (79/550). Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital recorded the highest prevalence 32(25.6%) of Cryptosporidium species while St. Patrick Hospital recorded the least 1(1.1%). Public hospitals recorded more infections than private hospitals. The age group ≤ 5years 43(15.8%) recorded the highest prevalence. Males 52(17.1%) were more infected than females 27(10.98%), which was not significant (P>0.05). Children whose parents/caregivers had only primary education 11(26.8%), has the highest prevalence while those whose parents/caregivers had tertiary education 17(8.9%), has the least. Children whose parents/caregivers were farming has the highest prevalence 9(25.0%), while children of civil servants, 40(12.4%) has the least which was not significant (P>0.05). Children living in multifamily residences 48(15.2%) had higher prevalence than those living in private homes, 2(6.3%). Other protozoan parasites identified in the study were Entamoeba histolytica 88(16.1%) and Giardia lamblia 69(12.5%). There were co-infections of Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba histolytica 27(4.9%), Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia 21(4.3%) which was not significant (P>0.05). Intervention through health education on good hygiene habits, and provision of clean water and proper disposal of faeces will help reduce cryptosporidiosis among children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Malaria among ABO Blood Groups in Ghana: A Case Study of Adentan Municipality

Emmanuel Udochukwu Osisiogu , Genevieve A. A. Agyapong , Fareeda Ceeta Mahmoud , Fahad Bin Waqas , Calebina Appiah , Cindy N. Nikoi

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Volume 12, Issue 1, Page 21-29
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2023/v12i1217

The ABO blood group system is the most clinically recognized blood group and it is made up of A, B, AB and O antigens. Many studies have been done to determine the relationship between malaria and the ABO blood group system in terms of the susceptibility, intensity, resistance and frequency of the disease among the various blood groups and there have been variations in the findings thus; this study sought to determine the prevalence of malaria among the various blood groups among the residents of the Adentan municipality. A cross-sectional study was conducted and 208 participants were enrolled, out of which 147 (70.7%) and 61(29.3%) were females and males respectively and 194 (93.3%) and 14 (6.7%) participants were adults and children respectively. There were 69 malaria cases of which 13 (18.8%) were children and 56 (81.2%) were adults. 40.58% out of the 69 malaria cases were males while 59.42% were females respectively. Malaria was most prevalent among blood group O Rh positive (44%) and less in blood group B negative (0%). Blood group O positive (41%) was more prevalent among the residents. There was significant correlation between malaria and gender and malaria and age distribution (P=0.012 and P<0.00) respectively. In conclusion, children and the female gender type are more prone to malaria parasitemia than adults and the male gender type. Age is a significant risk factor in malaria infections. Although there was no significant relationship between malaria and blood group, malaria was most prevalent among those with blood group O Rh positive. Blood group O positive was the most common among the participants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiogram Pattern of Multidrug Resistance of Gram-negative Extended Betalactamase Isolates from Urine of Diabetic Patients

Ifeanyi Onyema Oshim, Joy Imuetinyan Ehiaghe, Oluwayemisi Odeyemi, Ajirioghene Anthonia Obroh, Evelyn Ukamaka Urama, Gabriel Okezie Chidiebere

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Volume 12, Issue 1, Page 30-37
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2023/v12i1218

Background: The rate of multidrug resistant bacteria is the most worrisome in the health setting because it often associates with nosocomial infection.

Objectives: This present study aim at, evaluating the antibiotic pattern of multidrug resistance of Gram-negative extended betalactamase isolates from urine of diabetic patients.

Methods: This is a cross sectional study carried out at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital with a total of 110 diabetic patients and were recruited using convenient sample method. The patients were instructed on how to collect the mid-stream urine samples without contamination. The samples were cultured and characterized the isolates following standard bacteriological methods. The isolated bacteria were subjected to sensitivity test pattern using agar disc diffusion techniques. The multidrug resistant isolates were physically checked for the extended spectrum betalactamase production. Obtained data was subjected to these statistical tools; descriptive statistics, chi-square and pair-test using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS version 26).

Results: Out of 110 urine samples assessed for significant growth of bacteria, it was found that, 55(27%) were the Gram negative bacteria (GNB).The highest prevalence of isolates were E. coli 30(54.6%), followed by Klebsiella pneumonia 14 (25.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6 (10.9%), and Proteus species 5 (9.09%) respectively. The most occurrence of the MDR bacteria were found in Augmentin 46 (83.6%) as well as as Cefuroxime  43 (78.2%) respectively. The significant mean range of Augumentin and Cefixime resistant to ESBL producers were (0.53±1.2; p = 0.000) and (0.600 ± 0.974; p = 000) respectively.

Conclusion: The study detected the high proportion of multi-drug resistant isolates and the most occurrence were found in E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Regular monitoring, conducting, supervising, or management of antibiotics and molecular biomarkers for drug resistance are paramount to curtail the rate of drug-resistant pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes with Obese Related Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

Ifeanyi Onyema Oshim, Nneka Regina Agbakoba, Kingsley C. Anukam , Ajirioghene Anthonia Obroh , Chioma Maureen Obi , Amaechi Chukwudi Ofodile

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Volume 12, Issue 1, Page 38-44
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2023/v12i1219

Background: Metabolic conditions such as Type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity have become worldwide public health important. Numerous evidences indicate that gut Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes are associated with these co-morbidities. Thus, the gut microbiota serves as a promising target for prognosis of metabolic disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of gut Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes on obese related Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The gut microbiota signature of 10 adults was studied using 16S rRNA sequencing targeting V3–V4 hypervariable regions and obtained data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS version 26). Result: The Pearson correlation analysis showed that phyla Bacteriodetes was significant positive when correlated with Body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.666, p = 0.002*), followed by phyla proteobacteria (r = 0.464, p = 0.045*), Firmicutes versus BMI (p>0.05), Actinobacteria versus BMI (p>0.05), while Firmicutes versus Glycated hemoglobin(HbA1c) (p>0.05), Bacteriodetes versus HbA1c (p>0.05), Proteobacteria versus HbA1c (p>0.05), Actinobacteria versus HbA1c (p> 0.05). Conclusion: The study revealed the abundance of phyla Proteobacteria and phyla Bacteriodetes were significantly associated with obese related type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although, these Phyla/ taxa showed no significant correlation with Hb1Ac in obese related type 2 diabetes mellitus.