Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Survival of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Isolated from Tuna Loins Produced in Côte D’ivoire

Andrée Emmanuelle Sika, Lacinan Ouattara, Dezay Thierry Yoro, Rose Koffi- Nevry, Koffi Marcellin Djé

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2020/v4i430117

Aims: The aim of this study was to study the growth of pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (ETEC) in Tuna loins.

Study Design: Bacteriological study.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Microbiology of the Central Laboratory of Food hygiene and Agro-business (LCHAI), Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire between September 2014 and December 2014.

Methodology: Three strains of E. coli (enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli (ETEC), possessing both "elt" and "est" virulence genes resistant to amoxicillin from Tuna loins; E. coli reference strain (ATCC 25992); strain of E. coli (KO 13) from water with the virulence gene "elt") were inoculated in brain heart infusion broth (BHI) and in tuna loins for 120 hours. pH and bacterial loads of E. coli were measured to 0; 3; 6; 12; 24; 48; 72; 96 and 120 hours respectively.

Results: The results showed that the three strains of E. coli used in this work survived in liquid medium (BHI) and in Tuna loins even after 5 days (120 hours). The growth curves of these three strains evolved in the same way in liquid medium and in Tuna loins. However, the growth rate of strains of E. coli inoculated in liquid media (BHI) was higher than that of strains inoculated in Tuna loins.

Conclusion: Pathogenic strains of E. coli isolated from Tuna loins are a hazard to be considered in the microbiological risk assessment of the consumption of these Tuna products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Quality of Food Sold in Different Grades of Mobile Food Vendors and Canteens in Owerri Metropolis

M. O. Nwachukwu, J. N. Azorji, P. C. Onyebuagu, R. I. A. Nnadozie, M. I. Izundu

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 12-21
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2020/v4i430118

The need to maintain proper hygiene in different grades of mobile food vendors and canteens cannot be overemphasized. The present study was conducted at Biotechnology laboratory, Federal University of Technology Owerri in August 2019 to ascertain the microbiological quality of food in different grades of mobile food vendors and canteens in Owerri Metropolis. Samples were collected from Fast food and Buka of which Two triplicates samples of rice, soup and moimoi were collected from two mobile food vendors in Owerri metropolis. Microbial count was carried out on each food sample using nutrient agar (NA) for bacteria count and sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) for fungi count. Colonies were also identified using standard procedure and biochemical test up to genera level. The result showed that the organism isolated from canteen (Buker) is higher than those of fast food. Organisms generally isolated includes staphylococcus aureus 0(0.0), Bacillius  sp. 59(9.5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 162(25.6), Proteus 0(0.0), in fast food while in canteen (Buka) the organism isolated includes Staphylococcus aureus 160(25.0), Bacillius sp. 0(0.0%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 16(2.6) and Proteus 227(36.4) and the organisms generally identified includes Penicillium sp. 20(6.4), Saccharomyces 26(8.7), Geotrichum 0(0.0%) and mucor sp. 0(0.0%) in fast food while in canteen(Buker) the organisms generally identified includes Penicillium sp. 0(0.0%), saccharomyces 45(15.0), Geotrichum 4(0.3) and Mucor sp. 205(68.3) and some of the genera that are of public health concern. The study suggests the need for continuous monitoring of the food vendors to forestall any form of infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sero-Epidemiological Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Apparently Healthy Young Adults in Omuaran-Community

James A. Ndako, Stephen Ojo, Victor T. Dojumo, Victor O. Fajobi, Ilochi Ifeanyi, Jeremiah A. Akinwumi, Charity O. Akor

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 31-38
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2020/v4i430120

Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is an important public health concern all over the globe. As a result of its asymptomatic nature, its prevalence among apparently healthy individuals becomes relevant for studies. Hence the prevalence survey of hepatitis B virus was conducted among apparently healthy young individuals. A total of two hundred samples were screened from volunteer subjects for Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg), using the one step immune-chromatographic test strip manufactured by Dia Spot® Diagnostics. Questionnaires were administered to obtain relevant information and demographic data. Overall result showed that 11 (5.5%) of the subjects tested were found to be positive. The highest prevalence was found among subjects aged 22-26 years with 7.8% prevalence compared to those aged 12-21 years with 4.4% prevalence (P=0.1012); (p˃0.05). Based on demographic factors, female workers tend to demonstrate high positivity of 12.5% compared to male with 10.0% prevalence, (P=0.4929); (p˃0.05). Subjects involved with risky behavioral pattern by the use of unsterilized objects recorded a high prevalence of 5.3%, (P=0.5748); (p˃0.05) among female subjects. Serum Alanine amino-tranferases result showed no significant difference among the positive subjects. The results showed some measure of prevalence among the study population. It therefore becomes pertinent that the community be enlightened on the possible risk of infection by the virus. Efforts should be made to ensure vaccination against this infectious agent is intensified.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation of Bacterial Pathogens from Borehole Water Sources within the University of Port Harcourt

H. O. Stanley, C. N. Eze

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 39-44
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2020/v4i430121

A study about the bacteriological and physicochemical quality of borehole water at the University of Port Harcourt was carried out. Eight water samples was pooled from NUH Block B (Under graduate Hostel), Nelson Mandela Block B (Undergraduate Hostel), Intercontinental Hostel (Post Graduate Hostel), Donald Ekong Block C (Post graduate Hostel), Clinical Hostel, Staff quarters (Opposite Uniport Bottling plant), Dan Etete (Undergraduate Hostel) and Gambiama Staff quarters designated as Sample 1 to sample 8 respectively. Physical examination was conducted to as the sanitary and hygiene practices within the collection area. It was observed that the undergraduate hostels had the least sanitary practice. Total counts of heterotrophic bacteria count showed that the highest bacterial count was recorded from Sample 2 with bacterial count of 2.3x104 CFU/ml while the least bacterial count was recorded from sample 8 with bacterial count of 3.0x102 CFU/ml. The isolated bacterial species from the water sources were identified as Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., E. coli., Serratia sp., Staphylococcus sp., Enterobacter sp., Citrobacter sp. The presence of coliform bacteria in the sampled water source does not comply with the World Health Organization (WHO) standard for coliform bacteria of zero total coliform per 100 ml of water. The borehole water samples collected had pH values within 5.9-6.85 which does not comply with the WHO recommended range for drinking water standards which should fall between ≥7 to ≤9.2. Nitrate concentration as observed amongst the eight water samples was below the WHO standard of 50mg/l. The Total dissolved solutes was below 0.01 in all the tested waters samples. This study has revealed that borehole water from sampled sources within the University of Port Harcourt is not fit for human consumption without adequate treatment.

Open Access Review Article

Current Perspective on Hospital Acquired Infection

B. S. Rithu, Aishwarya Lakshmi

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 22-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2020/v4i430119

Health care associated infections (HCAI) are a major complication faced by the healthcare sector leading to high morbidity and mortality. These infections are caused via the persistence of microbial pathogens in the hospital environment for extended periods (weeks to months) on contaminated surfaces. Foodborne illness is another significant source of infection in hospitals due to improper cleaning practices in the food operating sectors. Thus, frequent hygiene monitoring and efficient cleaning practices may reduce the rate of hospital-acquired infections. Contamination detection by traditional microbiological techniques is laborious, which has paved the way for the development of rapid biotechnological testing kits such as the ATP bioluminescence assay, which can be used as a rapid indicator of contamination.