Open Access Opinion Article

Are Patients on Cyclophosphamide at Higher Risk of Covid-19 Complications?

L. Preethi, G. Asvitha, S. Ankul Singh, Sarvesh Sabarathinam

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 40-43
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i230179

Coronaviruses are closely related virus causing several types of respiratory tract infections ranging from common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). There are many other ways in which Covid-19 will impact the existing public health issues. With the rising number of covid19 cases, it has been reported that people with the weaker immune system are at higher risk. We identified the mechanism of action of cyclophosphamide and its impact on the lung. Pulmonary side effects associated with cyclophosphamide are rare and dose-related. They manifest as early-onset pneumonitis, in patients with symptoms especially like cough and dyspnea. Acrolein in cyclophosphamide is the main component linked with the toxic effect. We hypothesize that use of cyclophosphamide, an antineoplastic agent and immunosuppressive agent used in treating many cancers and autoimmune disorders (like rheumatoid arthritis and ANCA vasculitis), induces severe lung toxicity which can be one of the contributing factors for the increased risk of COVID 19 complication. These factors are to be recognized to improve prevention and control of the disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate on Haematological Parameters and Differential Cells in Plasmodium Berghei-infected Albino Mice

G. S. Haruna, M. O. Enemali, I. I. Achimugu, R. Isah, M. Miftahu

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i230176

The current study evaluated the hematological changes in albino mice following infection with P. berghei and treatment with sodium bicarbonate; an alkaline substance intended to alkalinize the pH in the parasite environment. Twenty albino mice were randomly divided into five groups of four mice each. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were the test groups and administered 84mg/kg b.w of sodium bicarbonate injection once, twice and thrice respectively. Groups 1 received dH20, group 2; only P. berghei. Three days later, hematological parameters and differential cells were analyzed. PCV was significantly (p<0.05) lower in groups 2(32.00±0.70), 3(34.00±0.70), 4(34.00±0.70), 5(33.00±0.70) compared to control (35.00±0.70). Haemoglobin decreased significantly (p<0.05) in group 5 (11.00±0.70) compared to control (11.80±0.70). WBC showed significant (p<0.05) increase in the test groups; 2(3600.00±70.71), 3(4600.00±70.71), 4(4800.00±70.71), 5 (4800.00±70.71) compared to control (3200.00±70.71). Platelets decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the test groups; 2(90.00±.70), 3(87.00±.70), 4(84.00±.70), 5(86.00±.70) compared to control (92.00±.70). The percentage neutrophils was significantly (p<0.05) higher in group 2(61.00±0.70), significantly (p<0.05) lower in groups 3(58.00±0.70), 4(57.00±0.70), 5(57.00±0.70) compared to control (60.00±0.70). Leucocytes increased significantly (p<0.05) in groups 2(36.00±0.70), 3(38.00±0.70), 4(38.00±0.70), 5(40.0±0.70) compared to control (32.00±0.70). Monocyte was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the test groups; 2(2.00±0.07), 3(2.00±0.07), 4(2.00±0.10) and 5(1.00±0.89) compared to control (4.00±0.07). Eosinophils decreased significantly (p<0.05) in group 2(1.00±0.35), increased significantly (p<0.05) in group 4(3.00±0.70) compared to control (2.00±0.70). Basophils were not detected in neither of the groups. This study revealed that sodium bicarbonate administered to albino mice infected with P. berghei caused the elevation of some hematological parameters and differential cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence, Sensitivity Profile and Resistance of Gram-Positive Bacteria in Wounds to Conventional Antibiotics

Mercy Alabi, Michael Bayode, Ikeoluwa Aina, Jeremiah Adesanya, Oluwaseun Areo

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 9-17
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i230177

Aim: The prevalence, sensitivity profile and resistance of Gram-positive bacteria in wounds to commercial antibiotics were ascertained in this study.

Place and duration of study: University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Akure, Nigeria, between January and June 2019.

Methodology: Wound swabs sample collection, isolation of bacteria, identification of Gram-positive bacteria isolates and antibiotics sensitivity testing of isolated bacteria were determined employing standard protocols.

Result: Three Gram-positive bacteria were isolated and presumptively identified to be S. aureus, S. epidermidis and S. pyogenes. S. aureus had the highest prevalence of 53% followed by S. epidermidis with 42% and S. pyogenes accounting for the least occurrence of 5%. Ninety percent (90%) of ten S. aureus strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin while only 10% had intermediate activity. The least resistance of S. aureus strains was against pefloxacin (40%), while to streptomycin, 87.5% of eight S. epidermidis strains were resistant and 12.5% had intermediate sensitivity. Susceptibility was observed in S. epidermidis against pefloxacin (12.5%) while 50% had intermediate sensitivity and 37.5% were resistant. The highest zone of inhibition of S. epidermidis was observed in strain 7 against pefloxacin (16.00±1.00 mm) and in S. aureus by strain 5 against pefloxacin (16.50±2.50 mm).

Conclusion: Pefloxacin-sensitive Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species from wound swabs could become resistant overtime and this calls for incessant vigilance on Gram-positive wound bacteria antibiotic-susceptibility appraisal particularly in an antibiotics-abuse setting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Diverse Soil and Air Flora of Federal University of Technology campus, Akure, Nigeria

Kayode Anthony Onifade, Naomi Titilayo Akinsola

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 18-39
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i230178

Aim: This study was conducted to comparatively investigate the soil and air microflora of selected locations within the Federal University of Akure (FUTA), Ondo State, Nigeria.

Study design: Experimental design

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at The Federal University Technology, Akure (FUTA), Ondo State, Nigeria comprising; School of Sciences, School of Agricultural and Agricultural Technology, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, School of Health and Health Technology, Microbiology department, FUTA Health Centre, postgraduate hostel, female hostels (main Jibowu and Jibowu annex 1) and the male hostels (Akindeko and Abiola hall of residence) between June and July, 2019.

Methodology: Isolation of bacteria and fungi from soil samples and air was conducted using specified techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility test was conducted via agar disc diffusion technique. Plasmid analysis and curing was conducted via standard protocols.

Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. saprophyticus were isolated as soil and air microflora while Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, with Fusarium oxysporium were isolated from soil as A. flavus, A. niger, Penicillium chrysogenum was implicated in air. Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis showed utmost resistance to ceftazidime, cefuroxime, cloxacillin, augmentin, ceftriaxone, whereas Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus vulgaris were susceptible to gentamycin at 17.66±1.52 mm and 16.00±2.00 mm respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to gentamycin and ofloxacin at 17.30±0.57 mm and 18.66±0.57 mm. The multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial strains were positive for plasmid DNA with 10 kilobase pairs, but were sensitive to all the antibiotics after curing indicating plasmid-borne resistance.

Conclusion: Findings from this study inferred possible health consequences of MDR soil and air microflora as potential threat to human health which necessitates proper sanitary practices across different sampling areas adopted for this study to reduce potential incidence of bacterial and mycotic infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ciprofloxacin on the Growth and Biofilm Formation Ability of Staphylococcus aureus

N. Queenette, Obinaju, C. Chukwunonyerem, Ogwunga, O. Sylvia, Anyadoh-Nwadike, U. Emmanuel, Nwakwasi

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 44-59
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i230181

Staphylococcus aureus is part of the normal bacterial flora of the skin, intestine and upper respiratory tract of both humans and animals and has the potential of causing staphylococcal infections if there is a breach in the hosts’ defense mechanism. These infections could range from mild superficial skin infections to more severe and even fatally invasive diseases such as sepsis and toxic shock syndrome. The infectivity of S. aureus is attributed to its ability to withstand extreme conditions and its possession of various virulence factors. The aim of this project was to study the effect of ciprofloxacin on the growth and biofilm forming ability of CM10 strain of Staphylococcus aureus using time kill study, resazurin and live/dead staining of biofilms and Real-time polymerase chain reaction. The identity of the given CM10 strain was confirmed when the result of the API-Staph was in total accordance with the results obtained from the colony morphology and phenotypic characterization tests (Coagulase/protein A, Gram, and Catalase tests). CM10 strain of S. aureus was not susceptible to 0.25mg/L of ciprofloxacin used for the time kill experiment but was susceptible to a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.5mg/L. The difference between the ciprofloxacin treated biofilms of CM10 strain and the untreated biofilms was significant (P<0.05) showing that ciprofloxacin has an adverse effect on the cells in the biofilm. The results of this study provide an insight on the growth as well as the biofilm forming ability of CM10 strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin has been shown to be an effective antibacterial against this strain of S. aureus by its inhibitory effect on the growth as well as biofilm forming ability of this strain of S. aureus.  This information would assist in developing novel anti-biofilm therapies to help in the management of biofilm mediated infections thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality rate of staphylococcal infections.