Open Access Minireview Article

Critical Quality Control Issues of Antibiotic Susceptibility Tests for Developing Countries

Ayodele Oluwaseun Ajayi, Oluwabukola Atinuke Popoola

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 17-21
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i330184

Antibiotic therapy has been the mainstay of treatment of bacterial infections and the initial successes of the earlier generations of antibiotics for treatment and prevention of bacterial infections spurred further efforts to discover newer antibiotics. Antibiotic Susceptibility Test (AST) is a standardized procedure usually carried out on cultivable bacterial pathogens to determine their sensitivity to specific antibiotics, and to guide physicians on the best antibiotic treatment regimens for specific infections. The quality assurance and control for antibiotic susceptibility tests should be prioritized in deliberate efforts to reduce the burden of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections in developing countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Signature of Human Papillomavirus in Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers in Congo-Brazzaville

Anicet Luc Magloire Boumba, Sylvain Diembi, Boris. Otouana, G. C. Gouoni, A. B. Ecokounda Okoko, F. Itiere Odzili, Jean Felix Peko, Gottran Ondzotto

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i330182

Introduction: Carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract have a tropism on the epidermoid mucosa. HPV infection remains one of the risk factors for this cancer. This work aimed to study the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in carcinomas of the VADS.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study with retrospective data collection over 7 years. The molecular analysis was conducted in Pointe-Noire using Xpert® HPV technology (GeneXpert, Cepheid). The variables studied were anatomopathological and virological.

Results: The overall molecular prevalence of oncogenic HPV was 28.1%.  HPV-16 and HPV-18/45 were the incriminating genotypes in 88.9% and 11.4% of cases, respectively. A statistically significant association was found between co-infection with HPV-oncogenes in subjects over 40 years of age (P=0.01) and the development of these HPVs in squamous cell carcinomas (p=0.02). Notably, oncogenic HPV was found in the majority of laryngeal carcinomas. 

Conclusion: In countries with limited resources, the Xpert HPV technology from GéneXpert is a reliable and rapid solution for the virological diagnosis of oncogenic HPV associated with carcinomas of the VADS.  HPV-16 remains the most prevalent genotype.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Nosocomial Urinary Tract Infections and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Uropathogenic Bacterial Isolates of Patients from Selected Hospitals in Nsukka, Nigeria

C. O. Aleke, K. O. Ugwu, O. N. Akoma, I. M. Ezeonu

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 7-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i330183

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the significant healthcare and hygienic-based diseases ravaging millions of people, especially in third world countries with poor hospital settings. This cross-sectional and laboratory investigation was done to determine the incidence of nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs) and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the uropathogenic bacterial isolates from hospital patients in Nsukka, Southeastern Nigeria. Urine specimens of fifty patients were collected and analyzed between May and June 2018. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for detection of antibiotic susceptibility pattern for all isolates. Bacteriuria was observed in urine specimens of 31 (62%) out of the 50 participants, with the specimens of 13 yielding significant growth at 42% rate of nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs). The most predominant bacterial isolate of urinary tract infection was Staphylococcus spp. (31%); followed by Escherichia, Klebsiella and Proteus with (23%) each. Isolates were mostly susceptible to Ciprofloxacin (87.1%), while other isolates were mainly resistant to Zinnacef (937%). Pertinent recommendations were made with respect to treatment, multidrug resistance mitigation and aseptic and optimal health services delivery practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hematological and Histopathological Profiles of Swiss Albino Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei upon Treatment with Cooked Tetracarpidium conophorum Seed Ethanol Extract

Dada Ebenezer, Oladipo Faith Temiloluwa

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 22-37
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i330185

Aim: This study was conducted to verify the hematological and histopathological outcome of cooked ethanol seed extract of Tetracarpidium conophorum in swiss albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei (NK65).

Study Design: Descriptive study.

Methodology: Standard methods were conducted to determine the phyto-chemical profile of cooked T. conophorum seed ethanol extract, hematological, histopathological indices and biochemical assay. Mice were assembled into five groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) of seven each. The mice in group 4 were treated with a customary antimalarial drug (chloroquine as positive control) at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight, while mice in groups 3, 2 and 1 was administered with increasing dosages (200, 400, 800 mg/kg body weight) of seed extracts for four consecutive days respectively.

Results: The qualitative phytochemical screening of T. conophorum seed extract revealed the presence of bioactive components such as saponin, tannins, flavonoid, terpenoid. Saponin (16.82 mg/100 g) was the highest occurring phytochemical followed by terpenoid (10.39 mg/100 g), glycoside (5.9 mg/100 g), tannin (2.8 mg/100 g) and flavonoid (1.17 mg/100 g), while steroid only had a trace presence. Hematological parameters revealed mice in all groups do not possess significantly different mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Mice in group 5 (infected and not treated) demonstrated lowest values of hemoglobin, platelet, and packed cell volume with a significantly lower % eosin. There was considerable decrease in the levels of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase in group 5 compared to mice in groups 1, 2, and 3.

Conclusion: Ameliorative effects of seed extract were observed on the liver and kidney of mice at dose levels (200 mg/kg) used, but the 400 mg/kg restored the kidney but had adverse effect on the liver. This study therefore shows that cooked T. conophorum is generally less effective and could not be employed for treatment of malaria.

Open Access Review Article

A Review: Positive Outcome of Resveratrol Dry Suspension in Piglets against Rotavirus Infection

Hafiz Sultan, Imran Javed, Muhammad Amjad, Kashif Kareem, Muhammad Wakeel, Muhammad Kaleem

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 38-44
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i330186

Rota virus that cause diarrhea and other diseases in small infants is belonging to a virus family called Reoviridae with death rate of about more than 200000 annually. Although many vaccines are available for Rotavirus infection but still primary reason of death among infants. To prevent infection caused by this virus as diarrhea and other gastroenteritis in piglets we use a resveratrol, a natural phenol and a phytoalexin with a potential of strong antibiotic and antiviral, which has preventive and protecting outcome against Rotavirus infection in piglets. Pretreatment done and resveratrol dry suspension added to the adequate essential nutrient (basal diet) and the animal through oral route done Rotavirus and then know about the outcome of resveratrol dry suspension. Therefore, our main concern is to use the resveratrol dry suspension, which produced immunity in piglets against Rotavirus. It has positive outcome and reduced the diarrhea and other gastroenteritis. Therefore, the outcome of resveratrol dry suspension shows that it could be the best one to treat the diarrhea and other disease, which caused by this virus.