Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological, Physiochemical and Antibiotic Sensitivity Analysis of Bacterial Consortia Associated with Packaged Water Vended in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

Onifade, Anthony Kayode, Akinyosoye, Abimbola David

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i430187

Packaged water, most especially sachet and bottled water, is one of the major sources of drinking water in Nigeria, especially for commuters, whose major way of quenching thirst is to buy from road side vendors and previous studies has shown that packaged water does not always measure up to standard.

Aim: Investigations were done to determine adherence to physiochemical, microbiological standards. Antibiotic susceptibility profile and plasmid profiling of enumerated bacteria using disc diffusion method were carried out on vended packaged water samples.

Location of Study: Eleven brands of sachet water and seven brands of bottled water samples vended in Akure, Ondo State were randomly selected.

Methodology: Physiochemical analysis was carried out and the parameters were checked in line with standard organization of Nigeria (SON) specifications. Isolation of bacteria was carried out using standard procedures and isolates were identified by various biochemical tests.   Plasmid analysis and curing was conducted following standard protocols

Results: Total bacterial counts of sachet water brands ranged from 0.2 × 102 to 4.5 × 102 CFU/ml while that of bottled water brands ranged from 0.1 × 102 to 4.2 × 102 CFU/ml. Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Shigella dysentariae.  Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from the samples.

Conclusion: Most packaged water (Bottled water, sachet water) samples are improperly handled and produced, which could serve as a source for spread of antibiotic-resistant potential pathogens, a risk to public health. better surveillance should be done on packaged water sale and production, public health education is encouraged for safety of residents in the Metropolis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Tamarindus indica L. Leaf Extract and Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck Peel Extract on Meloidogyne spp (Root Knot Nematodes) in Jos, Plateau State

Mekidani, Salu Jacob, Clifford, Tochukwu Okoye, Agaba Abuche, Okwoli

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 15-21
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i430188

Aim: The Aim of this study is to determine the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Tamarindus indica  and peel extract Citrus sinensis on Root Knot Nematodes, in vitro.

Study Design: The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design.

Place of Study: This study was carried out in the biology laboratory of the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Methods: Extraction of phytochemicals from Tamarindus indica leaf and Citrus sinensis peels was carried out using an aqueous solvent. Tamarindus indica leaves and Citrus sinensis peels were collected within the province of Jos, and were dried at constant room temperature to a constant weight after which pulverized, sieved and soaked in water for 24 hours. The extraction was done using the cold maceration method. Eighty (80) second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne spp. were exposed to the extracts at different concentrations (100, 80, 60, 40, and 20mg/ml) for 6, 12, 18, 24. 30, 32 and 48 hours and, each treatment was replicated 5 times. The average number of dead nematodes per concentration were determined and recorded as mean ± SEM with statistical value at P < 0.05 considered significant.

Results: Results of phytochemical analysis showed that Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins, Steroids, Phenols, and Cardioglycosides were present in T. indica leaf extracts while C. sinensis peels contains Flavonoids, Alkaloids, Saponins, Tannins, Phenols, and Resins. These phytochemicals present are suspected to be responsible for the nematicidal activities of the plants. Nematode mortality in the two treatment groups (T. indica and C. sinensis extracts) was highest at 100mg/ml concentration (48 hours of exposure); It was followed by 80mg/ml in decreasing order while the least mortality rate was recorded at 20mg/ml. Hence, as the concentration of the extracts were increased with increase in time, high nematode mortality was observed. Percentage mortality of treated nematodes was statistically significant (P < 0.05) for all concentrations of the extracts at the different time intervals when compared to the control. Statistical analysis showed that T. indica had significantly higher effect on Root-Knot nematodes mortality than C. sinensis at varying concentrations and time of exposure.

Benefits of Results: Synthetic pesticides are the principal means used to control nematodes, but the natural products may provide a safe alternative. Hence, the active compounds (phytochemicals) in T. indica L. and C. sinensis L. can be harnessed to be used as biopesticides.

Conclusion: The study suggests that extracts of T. indica and C. sinensis can be utilized in the control of root knot nematodes and may have the potential for the production of biopesticides that can be used for the control of nematodes as it displayed nematicidal activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gastro Intestinal Helminths among Hausa-Fulani in Wamakko and Tambuwal Local Government Area of Sokoto, Nigeria

M. U. Iduh, K. Mohammed, I. Isah, O. F. Ashcroft, M. K. Garba, S. U. Nataala

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 22-37
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i430189

Background: Gastro Intestinal Helminths infection is one of the major health burdens in developing countries particularly in Sub -Saharan Africa. It has been estimated to affect about 2.5 billion people globally and 250 million people are thought to be ill as a result of such infections, the majority being children.

Aims: The study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of gastro intestinal helminths infections among people of Wamakko and Tambuwal local government area in Sokoto state.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted among Hausa- Fulani in wamakko and Tambuwal area in Sokoto, from June 2019 to October 2019.

Methodology: Parasitological examination was carried out on stool samples from 243 participants using microscopy following formal ether concentration methods.

Results: Finding revealed that 29 (12%) were positive for gastro intestinal helminths infections. Males recorded more prevalence (11.9%) than the females (11.8%).

Conclusion: Gastro intestinal helminths parasites continue to remain a serious public health problem in North-western Nigeria. Low level of education, occupational status, and poor water supply seems to be among significant risk factors for these infections. Creating awareness, increase level of sanitation, good water supply and de-worming programme among school children will reduce prevalence and intensity of gastro intestinal helminths parasitic infections in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevelance of Helicobacter pylori Infection among Students of Bingham University, Karu in North-Central Nigeria

Abioye, Joshua Omoniyi Kolawole, Anarado, Kosisochukwu Sylvia, Babatunde, Seye

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 38-47
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i430190

Helicobacter pylori infection occurs worldwide, though the burden differs greatly between countries and within populations. Studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori infection is higher in developing countries, including Nigeria and among populations of low socio-economic status. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection amongst students of Bingham University, Karu, Nassarawa State, Nigeria. A total of 565 blood samples were collected from students with their consents after completing a self-administered questionnaire. Each blood sample was spun for 5 minutes at 1000 rpm to get the serum, which was used to determine the presence of H. pylori antibody using a Helicobacter pylori test cassette. Of the 565 students screened, 31 were found to be positive, giving a prevalence of 5.5% (95%CI=3.6-7.4). Prevalence among the female students was higher at 6.3% in contrast to the male 4.5%, though this difference was not statistically significant (chi-square=0.904, P-value=0.34). Students aged 26-30 years showed the highest prevalence of 8.8% above 4.2%, 5.6% of the age ranges 15-20 and 21-25 years, respectively. Seropositivity of H. pylori increased with students’ year of study, with 100 Level having 9.3%, followed by 6.3% in 200 level. The 300 and 400 Levels had 5.8% and 2.5, respectively. Also, the students who were knowledgeable about the infection and those who were not had 15.7% and 3.2% seroprevalence, respectively. The low prevalence of the infection obtained in this study did not show sex or age differencesand could be as a result of the good sanitary living conditions or good feeding habits of the students. It is recommended that infected students should eat at regular intervals, obtain adequate treatment after stool analysis to confirm the infection, and also practice good sanitary habits. The school authority should keep on improving the living conditions of the students as this will enhance lower prevalence or total elimination of the infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice of Cameroonians towards Governmental Measures against COVID-19, Cameroon: An Online Survey

Basil Kum Meh, Franklin Chu Buh, Rose Sangong Efeutmecheh, Idriss Fotso, Moubarak Ben Halid Tinsobad, Ferdinand Tingomd

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 48-60
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i430191

Background: The outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic left no nation indifferent in adopting measures to fight against the spread of the disease. This survey aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude, and practice of Cameroonians towards preventive measures against the spread of COVID-19 in Cameroon.

Methodology: It was a cross-sectional online survey conducted nationwide via self-administration of a google form questionnaire in March 2020. Questionnaires were shared via Facebook and WhatsApp. Being a Cameroonian based in Cameroon was the main inclusion criteria. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.

Results: Amongst the 444 respondents who completed the survey, 232(52.3%) were males and females 212 (47.7%) with the majority, 221 (49.8%) between the ages of 26 to 35. Most, (99.6%) respondents had heard of COVID-19 mainly via social media 244 (55.0%) and TV/Radio, 139(31.3%). Difficulty in breathing was the most known symptom 402(90.54%). Cameroonians are quite knowledgeable about COVID-19 (444/446 i.e. 99.6% of respondents). Less than a half, 174 (39.19%) were aware of; 13 preventive measures and over 384 (86.49%) of 7 additional measures. More than half of the participants 261(58.8%) were optimistic that the pandemic will stop if people respect the hygienic and governmental preventive measures. A majority, 91% affirmed practicing handwashingbut only 76(19.3%) did it properly. Participants demonstrated less compliance to social distancing, 230(51.8%). A significant relationship was noted between knowledge on COVID-19 and handwashing with soap (p=0.005; r=0.320) as well as the use of face masks (r=0.701, p=0.001).

Conclusion: The governmental measures and hygienic preventive measures are known to Cameroonians but the compliance to these measures is moderate.