Open Access Minireview Article

Pulmonary Complication in Severe Malaria

Forman Erwin Siagian

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 19-27
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i130194

Malaria is a potentially fatal disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Transmission occurs via the bite of female mosquito, Anopheles spp. Epidemiologically, global number of malaria patient are located in Southeast Asia and Africa. Until nowadays, millions of people still living in endemic area, with children and pregnant women are among the most vulnerable group in the population.  Although there have been many advances in treatment and management, but the potential for harm remains; one of the example is lung involvement in patients with severe malaria. This paper aim to discuss briefly about lung derangement in the severe malaria and the inflammatory response related to the lung dysfunction. The severity of pulmonary impairment due to complications of malaria is determined not only by the initiation of antimalarial treatment but also by the hosts associated immune response.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Sida acuta Burm (Malvaceae) Crude Extracts on Clinical and Typed Enteric Bacteria

Opeyemi Dorcas Bodunrin, Ebenezer Olayemi Dada

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i130192

Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial activity of Sida acuta crude extracts on some enteric bacteria.

Study Design: Experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at The Federal University Technology, Akure (FUTA), Ondo State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Ethanol and cold water were used as extracting solvents. The phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of the crude plant extracts were carried out using standard techniques. The clinical and typed bacteria isolates used are Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella dysenteriae. Commercial antibiotics were used as positive reference to compare the sensitivity of the bacterial strains.

Results: The results of qualitative phytochemical screening of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of S. acuta revealed the presence of alkaloids; tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, phlobatanin, and terpenoid. Quantitative result showed that alkaloids and terpenoids were significantly (p ≥ 0.05.) higher in ethanol (9.41±0.06) and 7.66±0.06) compared to aqueous extract (6.61±0.05 and 5.55±0.05). The ethanol extract showed highest inhibitory effect (32.00±1.00) on clinical S. dysentariae and typed S. typhimurium at 200mg/ml. Highest inhibition observed for the aqueous extract at 200mg/ml was (24.67±1.03) and (24.33±1.03) for clinical S. typhimurium  and E. coli  respectively. The antibiotics sensitivity test showed that only ofloxacin was effective against the enteric bacterial isolates.

Conclusion: Findings from this study revealed the potency of Sida acuta, as herbal candidate for the treatment of human enteric bacteria especially on S. dysentariae, S. typhimurium and E. coli at 200mg/ml which validates the antibacterial potency of Sida acuta and its potential as an herbal candidate for treating human enteric bacterial infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Community Acquired Staphylococcus aureus in Patients Received at the Traumatology Unit of a Secondary Referral Health Setting in the Western Cameroon

Viany Nankeng Manhafo, Thomas Djifack Tadongfack, Irina Lydia Sudeu Nitcheu, Vanessa Rosine Nkouayep, Aline Camerl Nzeffouo Selabi, Monique Odette Kamtchueng, Michael Junior Piameu Chadou

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 28-36
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i130195

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is responsible of a wide range of both community and Hospital acquired infections. Several genomic variability underlie the diversity of S. aureus strains responsible for the emergence of antibiotic resistance.

Objective: To assess the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of community acquired S. aureus isolated from pus samples in patients received at the traumatology unit of Our Lady of Health Centre of Batseng'la in Dschang, Western Cameroon.

Study Design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, carried out over a period of five months (from January to May 2021) involving a total of 52 participants received at the traumatology unit of Our Lady of Health Centre of Batseng'la in Dschang, Western Cameroon.

Methods: Pus samples collected from participants were seeded on Chapman Agar at 37°C for 24 hours. The colonies identification was based on catalase, coagulase and DNAse tests. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar. Data were analysed using SPSS version 25 Software.

Results: S. aureus was isolated in 22 of the 54 pus samples analysed, giving a positivity rate of 42.3%. The majority of strains (63.6%) were isolated from subjects less than 21 years old. From the strains isolated, 40.9% were MRSA and 86.4% presented multi-resistance patterns to the antibiotics tested. All strains of MRSA were found to be cross-resistant with one or more other antibiotics.

Conclusion: The multi-resistance of community acquired S. aureus to antibiotics is a reality. Adequate care should be taken while handling suppurating wounds and abscesses. Especially in younger ager individuals, as this may help in timely setting up proper care and treatment protocols necessary to overcome drug resistance of such extremely flexible pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Susceptibility of Medical Fungal Isolates to Commonly used Antifungal Agents

V. K. Robinson, B. Samuel-Penu, S. O. Minimah

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 37-42
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i130196

The susceptibility of fungal isolates associated with indoor air of medical institutions to commonly used antifungal agents were investigated using the open plate technique on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plates. The well in agar diffusion technique was used in determining the antifungal susceptibility. The antifungal agents used were fluconazole and ketoconazole and these drugs were prepared into four concentrations. Result showed reduced antifungal activity as the concentration decreased. Results of fluconazole against the fungal isolates showed that Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida sp, and Mucor sp were all sensitive at 5 mg/ml, 2.5 mg/ml, and 1.25 mg/ml while Rhizopus sp was only sensitive at the 5mg/ml concentration. Antifungal activity of ketoconazole showed that Aspergillus flavus, Candida sp, Mucor sp and Rhizopus sp were all sensitive at the 5, 2.5, 1.25 and 0.63 mg/ml concentrations while A. niger was susceptible to ketoconazole at 5 and 2.5 mg/ml concentrations. The MIC of Ketoconazole against Candida sp, Aspergillus flavus, Mucor sp and Rhizopus sp was 0.63 mg/ml. while the MIC of Aspergillus niger was at 2.5 mg/ml. There was highly significant difference (P≤0.05) in the response of the fungal isolates to fluconazole and ketoconazole in all concentrations of the drugs. Result also showed that both drugs were more effective against Candida sp and because of the effectiveness of ketoconazole on other isolates, it is recommended for use in treating mycoses caused by these fungi from this site.

Open Access Review Article

Chyavanprash: A Multimodal Approach to COVID-19 Management

N. Deepak Venkataraman, R. Meenakshi Sundaram, S. S. Somanathan, T. Purushoth Prabhu, K. P. Rama, S. Jeya Shanmuga Priya

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 12-18
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i130193

The word Chyavanprash (CP) comprises of ‘Chyawan’ and ‘Prasha’. Chyavan represents ‘degenerative change’ and Prasha symbolises a drug. Enhancement of immunity and longevity of life were the main reasons for which CP was consumed since ancient times. CP has about 50 herbs, spices and minerals along with a range of pharmacological activities on almost all organ systems of the human body.

COVID-19 actually means coronavirus disease 2019. COVID-19 targets and affects multiple organs like lungs, heart, kidney etc, thus increasing the mortality and morbidity rates. The medication cost and side effects have made the allopathic system of medicine the least sought after. The rapid spread rate of the infection has urged mankind to look at alternative remedies to fight the novel coronavirus.

AYUSH is a government organisation under the Ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy which aims to promote indigenous alternative medicine systems in India. AYUSH recommends various measures to fight the novel coronavirus infection.

Chyavanprash is one such important formulation proposed by the AYUSH for COVID-19. The purpose of our review is to highlight the constituents and pharmacological activities of CP in the prophylaxis, manage and treatment of COVID-19 by collecting and compiling the published research on COVID-19. The review also focuses on understanding the mechanism behind the multimodal activity of CP. References relevant to our topic were screened based on relevance to our topic.