Open Access Original Research Article

Detection and Antibiogram Profile of Enterococcus Species from Local Cheese Sample within Ikare and Akungba Akoko, Ondo State Nigeria

Ayodeji Charles Osunla

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i230198

Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora of humans and animals and are increasingly recognized as significant human pathogens and capable of causing major therapeutic challenges. The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Enterococcus species in two local cheese sample collected from Akungba and Ikare. The isolation of Enterococcus was carried out using standard culture-based techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the Enterococcus species was determined using disk diffusion method. A total number of 93 presumptive Enterococcus species were recovered from forty two different samples over a period of three months. The bacterial count observed on the Bile Aesculin agar ranged from 1.5x104 cfu/ml to 4.6x104 cfu/ml with Akungba sample having the highest bacterial load of 4.6x104 cfu/ml. The Morphology and biochemical characteristics of suspected Enterococcus spp. isolated from the cheese sample revealed Enterococci feacalis as the isolated bacteria. The isolated Enterococcus species were tested against a panel of six antibiotics which include Penicillin G, Vancomycin, Tetracycline, Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin and Imipenem. It was observed that the isolates were susceptible to tetracycline, imipinem and ciprofloxacin while they are resistant to ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. The prevalence of Enterococci was confirmed with Enterococcus feacium and Enterococcus faecalis as the predominant species isolated in both cheese sample. The ability of Enterococcus species to survive a range of adverse environments allows multiple routes of cross-contamination of Enterococci in causing human disease, including those from food. Overall, greater understanding of the ability of Enterococcus species to survive stresses, of virulence traits and especially of increasing antibiotic resistance, is needed in order to fully appreciate the complexity of Enterococcus species in causing disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Bacterial Pathogens in Ready-To-Eat Foods: Potential Public Health Hazard

Samuel E. Odo, Chidinma S. John, Israel C. Omekara, Daniel A. Nwaubani

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 6-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i230199

The right to obtain safe food is one of the most vital and fundamental human rights that must not be compromised or neglected; this is important because foodborne diseases can lead to prolonged disability and even death. Our study examined 28 samples of ready-to-eat foods, of which 27 samples (96.4%), contained bacterial contaminants. The bacterial pathogens isolated include Escherichia coli (50%), Salmonella spp (75%) and Staphylococcus aureus (85.7%). All the samples of jollof rice (100%), bean porride (100%) and eba (100%) were contaminated while 85.7% of egusi soup samples contained bacterial contaminants. The presence of these bacterial pathogens in the ready-to-eat foods poses huge risk to public health. It calls for immediate and sustainable action to prevent the possibility of foodborne disease out-break and intoxication capable of harming public health and socio-economic development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aframomum melegueta [Roscoe] K. Schum) Ethanolic Seed Extract against Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Isolates from Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Ondo State, Nigeria

O. T. Osuntokun, J. O. Balogun, E. O. Akele, S. A. Adedayo, O. A. Bello

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 12-43
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i230200

The purpose of this research work is to compare the activity of medicinal plant(Aframomum melegueta) and conventional antibiotic against Asymptomatic Bacteriuria isolates from pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in a major primary health center in Akoko, south ,Ondo state Nigeria. The target Asymptomatic Bacteriuria isolates which is inherent in pregnant women with no observable features.  The rate of growth/ death of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Isolates were x-rayed. Bacteria were isolated from Urine of pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Public health care Akungba Akoko, Ondo state, Nigeria and were identified using conventional method. The antibiotic susceptibility test and antimicrobial screening of ethanol seed extract of Aframomum melegueta were determined using disc diffusion and agar well diffusion methods respectively. The eleven(11) bacteria identified were Klebsiella pneumoniae (three,3), Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis(Two,2),Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae (Two,2), Escherichia coli (three,3), Bacillus cereus, Serratia mercesiens, Enterobacter aerogens. E. coli and klebsiella pneumoniae were the most common isolates. The second most common isotales was Enterobacter cloacae.. Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis were resistant to Ampicillin, Ceporex, Nalixadic acid and Septrin. E. coli, the most common isolate was sensitive to Gentamycin and most of the antibiotics used. The antimicrobial screening of ethanol seed extract of Aframomum melegueta shows zones of inhibition with diameter ranging from 1-25mm. Secondary metabolite screening indicates the presence of flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides. Ultraviolet spectrophotometer was also used to determine the Growth dynamic /Death rate of the isolates, the addition of antibiotics to the organism at the 48th hour speed up the death rate of the isolates, the addition of ethanol seed extract at the 48th hour also speed up the death rate of the isolates from the urine samples. The results of this study validate the use of Aframomum melegueta seed in the traditional treatment of Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus Diarrhoea in Children under the Age of Five Years in FCT Abuja, Nigeria

B. Balarabe-Musa, N. T. Dabo

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 44-58
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i230201

Introduction: Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death among children, and Nigeria has the continent's highest mortality with little information on the specific cause, proportion affected by Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus, and the prevalent genotypes for Rotavirus.

Aim: To identify children with diarrhoea, in Abuja in the Federal Capital Territory; to estimate the proportion of children with Cryptosporidium and rotavirus diarrhoea.  

Study Design: One-year cross-sectional study of children under five years with acute diarrhea.

Duration:  The study was conducted in Abuja from June 2018 to May 2019.

Methodology: Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus ELISA were done with commercially available kits.

Results: Stool samples were collected from 1450 participants, of whom 1185 (81.7%) were ambulatory, 109 (7.5%) were hospitalized, and 156 (10.7%) were controls without diarrhoea. Cryptosporidium-ELISA was positive among 274 (21.1%) children with diarrhoea and 23 (1.7%) of children without diarrhoea, with August and September as peak months for infection. Rotavirus-ELISA was positive among 231 (17.8%) children with diarrhoea and 29 (2.2%) controls, with November, December, and January as peak months. Children of 12 to 17 months were most affected for both and Rotavirus (39.8%) and Cryptosporidium (37.2%).

Conclusion: Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus are essential pathogens in children, especially among Rotavirus unvaccinated children in Abuja. Local and national infrastructure is inadequate for essential surveillance of diarrhoeal disease, and this will have to be improved, together with access to virological and parasitic stool testing, to monitor the planned vaccine program, especially for Rotavirus.

Open Access Review Article

Epidemiology of Malaria in Pregnancy and Associated Risk Factors in Nigeria: a Review

Chibuzo Christian Uba, Moses Nkechukwu Ikegbunam, Emmanuel Chigozie Udegbunam, Chioma Abana, Stephen Nnaemeka Ezekwueche, Ogadinma Daughter Okengwu, Gaber El-Saber Batiha

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 59-72
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i230202

Each year, an estimated number of 300–500 million people are infected with malaria parasite, with an undesirable effect of over one million deaths. Pregnant women as well as young children, non-immune travellers visiting malaria-endemic zones are at the highest risk of suffering or experiencing life - threatening malaria infection. Maternal immunity, parasite density, parity, inadequate antenatal care services, drug misuse and abuse as well intermitted preventive treatment drug failure cum resistance are the most associated risk factors of malaria in pregnancy obtainable in endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Identification and understanding of these factors will play a major role in reducing the burden as well as eliminating malaria disease among pregnant women living in endemic regions.