Open Access Minireview Article

Delicious to the Last Piece: Why Ectoparasite Prefer Human Skin

Forman Erwin Siagian, Esy Maryanti

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 38-45
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i330206

The interaction of ectoparasite in correlation to its host’s skin is important. The extent of interaction somewhat makes these parasites able to survive in the harsh conditon of the host’s skin. Their existence mostly in the context of gaining their nutrition and perhaps continue its regeneration.  Because these diseases caused by ectoparasite are easility transmitted, widespread, and the state of polyparasitism is often took place in a single vulnerable host, and significant primary and secondary morbidity and or complication occurs, which can worsen the course of the inital disease. This minireview aim to discuss about the interlinkage of some EPSD agents in correlation to its host’s skin, their interaction and what makes these endoparasites able to survive in the skin in the context of gaining their nutrition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Bean Common Mosaic Disease and Associated Aphid Vector, Aphis fabae L., on Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Production in Lower Eastern Kenya

Ngela A. Muute, Benjamin Muli, Orek Charles

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i330203

Production of common bean in Kenya is constrained by pests and diseases and to improve bean yields amongst majority small-scale farmers, appropriate management strategies should be adopted. Bean common mosaic disease (BCMD) caused by bean common mosaic virus and vectored by bean aphids and infected seeds, substantially inhibit common bean production in Kenya. An extensive and diagnostic field survey was conducted in six agro ecological zones (AEZs) of lower eastern Kenya during the long and short rains of 2018 to determine BCMD incidence (BCMD-I), severity (BCMD-S), bean aphid abundance (BAA), bean aphid incidence (BAI) and the management strategies applied by farmers. Significant (P≤0.001) variations observed for these traits between bean varieties, rainy seasons and AEZs implied that farmers could select and grow a tolerant bean variety or grow a variety either in a season or an AEZ with low BCMD and bean aphid pressure. Such included AEZ-UMSA with least mean BCMD-I (42%), BCMD-S (1.9) and BAI (11%) compared to two AEZs (LHSH & LM4) that showed BCMD-I of >70%, BCMD-S >3.0 and BAI >50%. The AEZs differences could be attributed to variations in altitudes, temperature and humidity that influences vector (aphid) movement.  Of the nine  bean varieties identified during the survey, Selian 14 was the most preferred by farmers (at ~35%) with relatively lower BCMD-I (~49%) and BAI (~35%) compared to the least (<5%) farmer-preferred variety Wairimu that showed higher BCMD-I (56%) and BAI (~68%). Therefore variety Selian 14 was considered tolerant to BCMD and bean aphid. Significant (P≤0.001) and positive correlations (r = 0.67) between BAI and BCMD-I implied an effective control of bean aphids could reduce the impact of BCMD on bean production. On visual diagnostics, >75% of farmers could generally identify diseased or pest-infested bean crops and stage of growth of the crop most affected. None (0%) could however identify BCMD symptoms although ~40% identified the vector bean aphids with ~26% implementing some form of aphid or pest management strategy. On management, season-driven early planting and bean intercropping were the most applied strategies (>80%), crop rotation and weed control accounted for ~71%, certified seeds at 1% and non-chemical or pesticide applications (0%). Both low adoption of certified seeds and no chemical aphid control were attributed to high costs, despite the possibility the two factors could have contributed to higher incidences and severity of BCMD in the study area as the disease is both seed and vector-borne.  In summary, lack of knowledge and training among farmers on diagnosis and management of aphid-pests and BCMD, were cited as the main constraints for low bean cultivation. This study therefore recommends provision of adequate extension services and farmer training in lower eastern Kenya for improved bean yield and subsequent better family livelihoods and income.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rotavirus Genotypes in Abuja, Nigeria

B. Balarabe-Musa, N. T. Dabo

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 19-31
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i330204

Introduction: Nigeria had planned to introduce the rotavirus vaccine in the National Immunisation Programme in 2014, but this has yet to be done. Nigeria has the continent's highest mortality due to diarrhoeal diseases with little information on specific, prevalent genotypes.

Aim: The study's main objectives were to identify the predominant rotavirus genotypes and examine the effects of existing local vaccination programs on prevailing rotavirus genotypes and on preventing rotavirus diarrhoea.

Methodology: A one-year prospective descriptive study of children under 5 with acute diarrhoea was conducted from June 2018 to May 2019. Children with acute diarrhoea attending Asokoro District Hospital, Abuja. Children without diarrhoea were also recruited as a control group. Rotavirus ELISA and RNA extraction were done with commercially available kits, and positive samples were subjected to RT-PCR and electrophoresis to determine VP7 (G) and VP4 (P) genotypes.

Results: Rotavirus-ELISA was positive among 231 (17.8%) children with diarrhoea and 29 (2.2%) of controls, with November, December. The predominant VP7 genotypes was G1 (n=116, 50.2%) followed by G9 (n=66, 28.5%). Viral Protein, VP4 (P) was mostly P [8] (n=143, 74.8%) followed by P [4] (n=21, 10.9%). The predominant genotype combinations found were G1 P [8] (n=108, 46.7%), G9 P [8] (n=62, 26.8%), and G2 P [4] (n=18, 7.7%). Very few mixed infections were found in the study, 2 (0.8%). Among 94 unvaccinated children with rotavirus isolates that were genotyped, G1 P [8] (n=88, 49.4%) and G9 P [8] (n=43, 24.1%) were predominant.  Among 32 vaccinated children, G1 P [8] (n=13, 40.2%) and G9 P [8] (n=9, 28.1%) were predominant.

Conclusion: The emergence of new genotypes such as G 12 P [4] found in this study emphasize the need for continued prospective monitoring of rotavirus at the molecular level to detect new threats to vaccine programs in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fungal Pathogens Associated with Damping-off Disease of Cashew Seedlings in Nigeria

O. O. Kolawole, C. I. Iloyanomon, M. O. Ogunlade

International Journal of Pathogen Research, Page 32-37
DOI: 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i330205

Aim: This study was designed to isolate fungal pathogens associated with damping-off of cashew seedlings.

Study Design: The cashew seedlings for this study were selected randomly from a number of infected cashew seedlings in the screen house.

Methodology: Associated fungal pathogens were grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and identified using their characteristics and morphological features observed under the microscope with reference to published identification manuals.

Results: The result showed that damping-off of cashew seedling is mostly associated with fungal pathogens such as such as Fusarium spp, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Pythium spp., Alternaria sp., Curvularia sp., Aspergillus niger, and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. However, Fusarium spp, and Pythium spp. were predominant and frequently isolated than other pathogens.

Conclusion: The knowledge of these pathogens is important for designing strategies to safeguard cashew plant health against diseases in order to ensure sustainable cashew production in Nigeria.